2018 Volume 2018 Issue 38 Pages 90-115
The Banking Union is a framework composed of “Single Supervisory Mechanism （SSM）”, “Single Resolution Mechanism （SRM）” and “Deposit Guarantee Scheme （DGS）” and aims at strengthening regulation, observation and governance in the European financial sector. In the case that a bank goes into bankruptcy, it will be saved, without using public finance, between stockholders and creditors under the framework of banking union. Moreover, European Union （EU） integrates the responsibility of observation into the European Central Bank （ECB） and expects that ECB will be able to timely intervene banking system in member countries so that it can stop spreading financial crisis.
On the other hand, European financial system is diversified and regional oriented in nature, reflecting its history, culture and policies. For example, in Germany, Landesbank/Sparkasse system, which is like a public bank owned by local government, and cooperative banks, which have close relationship with local businesses, has a larger share and influence. In France, large financial institutions such as Credit Agricole, BPCE group and Credit Mutuele, which are owned partly by public entity, make it possible to be both commercialization and localization at the same time by owning numerous small local banks under their umbrellas. In the Netherlands and Finland, which are economically successful in Euro zone, cooperative banks such as RaboBank and OP Group have also larger share and could keep sound banking even during European debt crisis. However, In Spain and Italy, which owns about 1/3 of bad loans in whole Euro zone, cooperative and saving banks also have larger share in their financial systems but it is criticized that its governance is one of major reasons causing financial crisis.
Purpose of this paper is to overview how de-centralized financial system like saving banks and cooperative banks, which have larger influence in European countries, are overcoming the financial crisis in major European countries and to analyze and discuss effectiveness of both banking union and stability of regional financial system, emphasizing its importance as a stabilizer of money circulation in regional economy.
This paper also tries to show the soundness of regional financial system during European debt crisis with recent business performance of cooperative banks which have decentralized financial structure and to complement precedent papers by indicating that characteristic of financial structure have some relationships with degree of financial crisis through comparing the characteristics of four major Euro countries such as Germany, France, Spain and Italy. （395 words）