T helper 17 (Th17) cells have been suggested to play a crucial role in various complications during pregnancy by participating in maternal immune activation (MIA). To test a possible role for Th17 cells in MIA-mediated abortion, we analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt), a master regulator of IL-17 producing cell development. These mutant mice (RORγt Tg mice) exhibited a constitutive upregulation of serum interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and decreased E-cadherin expression in cell–cell junctions of placental tissues. Abortion after the administration of a viral-mimicking synthetic double-stranded RNA polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid was more frequent in RORγt Tg mice than wild-type mice. These results suggest that excessive Th17 cell activity alters immune responsiveness and increases the rate of abortion during gestation.