1997 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 64-69
The smoke production from the burning of crude oil was investigated for a 1m diameter pan and for a 2.7m × 2.7m pan, which is the largest pan size used within a fire test facility for smoke characterization. The smoke yield, as measured by two procedures both based on the carbon balance method, increased by about 50% as the pan size increased. Analysis of the smoke by transmission electron microscopy showed that the volume mean diameter of the primary spheres increased by about 80% as the pan size increased. These results are compared with other studies ranging in scale from a pool diameter as small as 8.5cm to as large as 12m crude oil "spill" fires and 100m pool fires set during the 1991 war in Kuwait.