Epigenome information mediates genome function and maintenance by regulating gene expression and chromatin organization. Because the epigenome pattern can change in response to internal and external environments, it may underlie an adaptive genome response that modulates phenotypes during development and in changing environments. Here I summarize recent progress in our understanding of how epigenome patterns are shaped and modulated by concerted actions of silencing and anti-silencing factors mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana. I discuss the dynamic nature of epigenome regulation, which is realized by cooperation and counteraction among silencing and anti-silencing factors, and how the dynamic epigenome mediates robust and plastic responses of plants to fluctuating environments.
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