Demands for high performance chips have been drastically increased along with the development of smart phones, tablet-PCs and so on. Scaling is an ongoing challenge to fabricate a chip with multi-functions in a limited space for semiconductor manufacturers. In accordance with the design rules, critical dimensions (CD) have shrunk in half every two years. Scaling has been realized by making a photolithography pattern finer and finer by implementing a light source that has a shorter wavelength for lithography. In the development of photoresists for each wavelength, such as g-line, i-line, KrF and ArF, it is necessary to select suitable polymer platforms in order to obtain transmittance of the wavelength being used. This report introduces the history of the development of photoresist material and describes future lithography materials such as nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and direct self-assembly (DSA) technology.