2018 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
Prasugrel, a novel P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, is administered to patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but it can increase the risk of bleeding. The Japanese exhibit weaker responses to clopidogrel than other races because of CYP2C19 polymorphisms; thus, it is unclear whether these patients should continue dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) using prasugrel or switch to clopidogrel in the chronic phase. Here we evaluated the clinical outcomes of DAPT guided by CYP2C19 polymorphisms after implantation of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) for ACS management. Patients with ACS receiving PCI via DES from November 2011 to March 2015 were divided into two groups: conventional DAPT with clopidogrel (n = 41) and gene-guided DAPT (n = 24). In the gene-guided DAPT group, all patients with ACS were given DAPT using prasugrel as soon as possible; extensive and intermediate metabolizers receiving PCI for the first time were switched to clopidogrel at least 2 weeks after discharge, and intermediate metabolizers with repeated ACS and poor metabolizers continued on DAPT using prasugrel. Notably, gene-guided DAPT significantly reduced major adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events (MACCEs; 22.0% versus 4.2%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.81; P = 0.0247). Hemorrhagic complications were observed in 3.1% of patients receiving conventional DAPT and absent in the gene-guided group. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that gene-guided DAPT significantly decreased MACCE incidence (HR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.81; P = 0.033). Collectively, these data suggest that CYP2C19 polymorphism analysis may improve treatment decisions in patients with ACS receiving DES-PCI.