Article ID: 17-459
The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death. Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a predictor of cardiac mortality, but little information is known on the relationship between CMD and omega-3 PUFAs. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the serum levels of omega-3 PUFAs and the CMD evaluated by the hyperemic microvascular resistance index (hMVRI) to assess coronary microvascular function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
Intracoronary physiological variables (fractional flow reserve (FFR), hMVRI, mean distal coronary pressure (Pd), and average peak velocity (APV)) were measured in 108 patients. These parameters were evaluated in 150 coronary arteries with stenosis of intermediate severity and without significant ischemia (FFR > 0.80). The PUFA levels and atherosclerotic risk factors were also measured. Univariate analysis shows that hMVRI was negatively correlated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio (β = −0.31, P = 0.001) and EPA (β = −0.25, P = 0.009) and was positively correlated with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.26, P = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis shows that the EPA/AA ratio was the only independent determinant of hMVRI (β = −0.234, SE = 0.231, P = 0.024). Furthermore, hMVRI decreased significantly from the lowest to highest tertiles of the EPA/AA ratio (P = 0.007). The EPA/AA ratio was positively correlated with APV at hyperemia (β = 0.26, P = 0.008) but not with Pd at hyperemia.
A lower serum EPA/AA ratio may cause CMD in patients with stable CAD.