2006 Volume 45 Issue 7 Pages 419-428
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a major medical problem. Since CAP is a potentially fatal disease, early appropriate antibiotic treatment is vital. Epidemiologic studies have shown that in the combined cause-of-death category, pneumonia ranks fourth as the leading cause of death in Japan. Therefore, the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) provided guidelines for the management of CAP in adults in 2000. Because of evolving resistance to antimicrobials and advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CAP, it is felt that an update should be provided every three years so that important developments can be highlighted and pressing questions can be answered. Thus, the guidelines committee updated its guidelines in 2005. The basic policy and main purposes of the JRS guidelines include; 1) prevention of bacterial resistance and 2) effective and long-term use of medical resources. The JRS guidelines have recommended the exclusion of potential and broad spectrum antibiotics, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, from the list of first-choice drugs for empirical treatment. In addition, the JRS guidelines have recommended short-term usage of antibiotics of an appropriate dose and pathogen-specific treatment using rapid diagnostic methods if possible.