Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 130 articles from Advance online publication
  • Yayoi Ueda, Yusuke Kawai, Gentaro Shokoku, Kazuhiro Kuroda, Kohei Kawa ...
    Article ID: 4006-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (SMVT), which results from various etiologies, including coagulation disorders, can be diagnosed early using advanced imaging technology. However, few reports have described the nonsurgical treatment of acute peritonitis caused by SMVT. We encountered a young woman whose history included abdominal pain and daily oral contraceptives and who presented with acute peritonitis caused by SMVT. We administered nonsurgical treatment that included thrombolysis and anticoagulation for the peritonitis (without mesenteric ischemia as confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography). In addition, we showed the importance of investigating persistent risk factors for thromboembolism in young patients to determine the duration of anticoagulation.

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  • Masaharu Nakamura, Yoshihide Matsumoto, Shinya Hoki, Shigenobu Kuroki, ...
    Article ID: 4300-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 44-year-old woman presented to our hospital with abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a mass-like change in the lesser omentum between the liver and stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor-like change, and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed that the mass was located outside of the stomach wall. We performed EUS fine-needle aspiration and diagnosed panniculitis of the lesser omentum. Based on these findings, we suggest that mass-like lesions in the lesser omentum and submucosal tumor-like changes in the anterior wall on the lesser curvature side of the stomach be evaluated for the possibility of panniculitis of the lesser omentum.

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  • Yasunobu Sekiguchi, Hiroko Iizuka, Haruko Takizawa, Keiji Sugimoto, Sa ...
    Article ID: 4417-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 53-year-old woman had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in X-6. She was started on methotrexate (MTX) in X-1. She developed a cough, and chest computed tomography showed abnormalities. In X, MTX was discontinued, but the cough persisted. A lung biopsy revealed a diagnosis of nodular sclerosis classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL-NS). She was considered to have "other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders" (OIIA-LPD), MTX-associated Hodgkin lymphoma (MTX-HL). She received six courses of brentuximab vedotin (BV) in addition to AVD (BV+AVD). A complete metabolic response was obtained, and the RA went into remission. This is the fourth reported case of BV+AVD for MTX-HL.

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  • Go Makimoto, Tatsuya Nishi, Keita Kawakado, Tomoka Nishimura, Tomoki T ...
    Article ID: 4429-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Some patients discontinue receiving osimertinib for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation due to adverse its effects. We report a case of successful desensitization therapy after osimertinib-induced urticaria. An 85-year-old Japanese woman received osimertinib as third-line therapy for NSCLC with the EGFR T790M mutation. After two days, she developed urticaria of the lower extremities. We started osimertinib desensitization therapy at 0.1 mg/day, which was gradually increased to 40 mg/day. She continued osimertinib for >12 months without adverse effects. Desensitization therapy with osimertinib could be useful for patients experiencing osimertinib-induced urticaria.

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  • Shinji Nishiwaki, Hiroko Fujimoto, Takuya Kurobe, Atsushi Baba, Masahi ...
    Article ID: 4465-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objectives As direct jejunal feeding often causes great fluctuation in glucose levels, continuous or slow infusion is recommended for jejunal tube-fed patients. However, continuous feeding results in prolonged immobility and the loss of activities of daily living. We investigated whether or not intermittent feeding of a low-carbohydrate high-monounsaturated fatty acid (LC/HM) nutrient formula reduces glucose fluctuation in patients who have undergone jejunotomy.

    Methods Ten bed-ridden non-diabetic patients receiving enteral feeding via a jejunostomy tube were enrolled in this study. LC/HM formula and standard control formula were infused in cross-over order for each patient at a speed of 160 kcal/h. Blood glucose levels were monitored by a continuous glucose monitoring system during the investigation period.

    Results The mean and standard deviation of the glucose concentrations and mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) were markedly lower while receiving LC/HM formula than while receiving control standard formula (104 vs. 136 mg/dL, 18.1 vs. 58.1 mg/dL, 50.8 vs. 160 mg/dL, respectively). The post-infusion hyperglycemia [area under the curve (AUC) >140 mg/dL] and peak value of the glucose level were also significantly lower in patients fed LC/HM than the control (25.7 vs. 880 mg・h/dL and 153 vs. 272 mg/dL, respectively). Reactive hypoglycemia (AUC <70 mg/dL) was also significantly lower (0.63 vs. 16.7 mg・h/dL) and the minimum value of the glucose level higher (78.4 vs. 61.8 mg/dL) in patients fed LC/HM than the control.

    Conclusions The LC/HM formula is considered to markedly inhibit glycemic spikes and prevent rebound hypoglycemia in patients who receive enteral feeding after jejunostomy.

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  • Hitoshi Shimada, Yasuo Shimada
    Article ID: 4553-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
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    An 86-year-old man, who had undergone a lumboperitoneal shunt for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) implanted 4 years earlier showed progressive parkinsonism for the past year. His clinical symptoms, including resting tremor and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, responsiveness to levodopa, and abnormal findings on 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and dopamine transporter imaging, indicated that his pathological background of parkinsonism included concomitant synucleinopathy, such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies, in addition to iNPH. Clinicians should consider the possibility of concomitant proteinopathies and their treatments when clinical symptoms become evident after shunt operations in patients with iNPH.

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  • Goichi Beck, Rika Yamashita, Chizu Saeki, Takuya Ogawa, Mikito Shimizu ...
    Article ID: 4601-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report a 56-year-old Japanese woman who had been diagnosed with hereditary angioedema. She experienced progressing muscle weakness and pain in the upper and lower extremities. Blood tests revealed a marked increase in creatine kinase levels; however, myositis-specific autoantibodies were not detected. Serum C1-inhibitor activity and C4 levels were low. A muscle biopsy showed mild muscle fiber necrosis and C5b-9 deposition in the endomysial capillary vessel walls and sarcolemma, mimicking necrotizing myopathy. These results suggest that C1-inhibitor deficiency induces myositis-like symptoms through the activation of the complement pathway and deposition of the membrane attack complex in the muscles.

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  • Marina Asano, Takuto Hayakawa, Yuki Kato, Kyogo Kawada, Shuji Goto, Jo ...
    Article ID: 4676-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 72-year-old lady with atrial fibrillation and chronic renal failure was hospitalized due to bradycardic shock with electrocardiographic QRS prolongation. She had experienced limb shaking two days before hospitalization, and additionally developed hallucinations one day before admission. Pilsicainide intoxication was diagnosed from a review of her medications and electrocardiographic findings. Consequently, continuous hemodiafiltration was performed resulting in a resolution of the hallucinations and the QRS prolongation.

    This is a rare case of psychiatric symptoms caused by pilsicainide intoxication. It is important to know the mode of excretion of a drug and to adjust its dose, so that such drug-related incidents can be avoided.

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  • Takao Konishi, Akira Hamabe, Hirotsugu Tabata
    Article ID: 4687-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
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  • Hiroyasu Inoue, Kentaro Yamada, Asami Fujii, Tatsuya Tomonari, Kotaro ...
    Article ID: 4708-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This article describes the first reported case of myasthenia gravis (MG) seropositive for both acetylcholine receptor antibody and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibody, complicated by autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 3. The patient exhibited myasthenic weakness restricted to the ocular muscles and ptosis. Severe clinical deterioration ensued with predominant bulbar symptoms. MG rapidly worsened, the patient was intubated, and agranulocytosis due to thiamazole was also present, so it was necessary to perform thyroidectomy with tracheostomy and thymectomy in two phases. Both the double-seropositive MG and the APS were involved in the patient's rapid deterioration.

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  • Tomoyo M Nishi, Shun Yamashita, Masaki Tago, Shu-ichi Yamashita
    Article ID: 4817-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Teruhiko Imamura
    Article ID: 4842-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Teruhiko Imamura
    Article ID: 4909-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Shozo Sueda, Tomoki Sakaue, Takafumi Okura
    Article ID: 4953-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
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  • Saeko Fukui, Kazuma Kobayashi, Yuya Fujita, Shoichi Fukui, Naoki Iwamo ...
    Article ID: 3923-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 74-year-old man with interstitial lung disease (ILD) underwent surgical excision of a growing retroperitoneal tumor and was diagnosed with spindle cell sarcoma. Just after the surgery, skin eruption and muscle weakness emerged. Based on his symptoms and examination findings, we diagnosed him with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) with positive anti-glycyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase antibody (anti-EJ) as paraneoplastic syndrome. Immunosuppressive treatments kept his progressing ILD stable for 21 months, although an expanding lung metastatic lesion from primary sarcoma was detected. Measurements of myositis-specific antibodies may enable the prediction of the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments for paraneoplastic syndrome, even if the primary disease becomes progressive.

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  • Hiroyuki Sugiura, Hisakazu Nishimori, Kazuya Nishii, Tomohiro Toji, Ke ...
    Article ID: 4082-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon lung disorder characterized by the excessive accumulation of surfactant-derived lipoproteins in the pulmonary alveoli and terminal bronchiole. Secondary PAP associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, no autopsy case has been reported. We herein report an autopsy case of secondary PAP occurring in a patient with PMF who was treated with the Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. We confirmed a diagnosis of PAP with complications based on the pathological findings at the autopsy. Notably, this case might suggest an association between ruxolitinib treatment and PAP occurrence.

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  • Naruhiro Kimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Chiyumi Oda, Atsushi Kimura, Kazun ...
    Article ID: 4112-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 75-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis was admitted for treatment of portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Computed tomography (CT) showed PVT, massive ascites, and multiple abdominal organ embolism. Blood tests revealed a decreased liver function (Child-Pugh grade C). Language impairment followed by progressive left hemi-paralysis was subsequently detected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple small acute cerebral infarctions and, on CT, a 30-mm bladder tumour; a biopsy specimen examination showed squamous cell carcinoma. Her general condition worsened rapidly, and the best supportive care was chosen. Our findings suggest that, in patients with PVT, Trousseau syndrome should be considered, even in cases of liver cirrhosis.

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  • Norio Akuta, Yusuke Kawamura, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Hitomi Sezaki, Tets ...
    Article ID: 4398-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) in NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the clinical features and liver histopathology.

    Methods In this retrospective study, the long-term histological impacts of SGLT2i in NAFLD patients with T2DM were investigated.

    Patients or Materials Seven patients with NAFLD and T2DM were treated for the long term with 100 mg/day canagliflozin, an SGLT2i, and liver biopsies were obtained at the 3 points of pretreatment, 24 weeks, and ≥1 year (third liver biopsy) after the start of treatment. Six of seven patients were evaluated with third liver biopsy at the point of three or more years. The primary outcome was liver histopathological changes (defined as a decrease in the NAFLD activity score of one point or more without worsening of the fibrosis stage, compared to pretreatment).

    Results All 7 patients showed worsening of body mass index and waist circumference at the third liver biopsy compared to 24 weeks. However, the scores of steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning, and fibrosis stage improved at the third liver biopsy in 57%, 43%, 14%, and 29% of the patients, respectively, compared to pretreatment. One of the seven patients showed histopathological worsening at the third liver biopsy compared to pretreatment, but the improvement was maintained in the other six patients.

    Conclusion The long-term treatment of NAFLD complicated by T2DM using an SGLT2i is associated with long-term improvement in liver histopathology despite the worsening of clinical features.

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  • Kazuhito Hirata, Jun-ichi Shimotakahara, Izumi Nakayama, Mitsuru Mukai ...
    Article ID: 4430-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report 3 cases of acute aortic dissection (AAD) in which the initial 12-lead electrocardiogram showed typical ST elevation consistent with acute pericarditis. All patients exhibited small pericardial effusion but did not suffer from rupture into the pericardium or clinical tamponade. Slow leakage or exudate stemming from the dissecting hematoma appeared to have caused inflammation, resulting in pericarditis. Therefore, we highlight the fact that AAD may masquerade as acute pericarditis. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of type A AAD as an important underlying condition, since the early diagnosis and subsequent surgical treatment may save patients' lives.

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  • Mamiko Anada, Miyoka Tohyama, Yoshitaka Oda, Yuuta Kamoshima, Itaru Am ...
    Article ID: 4431-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis 12 years ago and received multiple treatment regimens before achieving symptomatic stability with methotrexate plus tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor, about 2 years prior to the current presentation. Sixteen months after tocilizumab initiation, she exhibited dysarthria and disorientation; five months later, she was hospitalized with movement difficulties. Her neurological symptoms deteriorated thereafter, accompanied by enlarged cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. A biopsy of the right frontal lesion confirmed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). While several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been linked to PML, this is the first case associated with tocilizumab.

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  • Kentaro Tominaga, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Hiroki Sato, Takeshi Mizusawa, Sh ...
    Article ID: 4437-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ulcerative colitis, a chronic and recurrent inflammatory disease, is localized to the colonic mucosa but can affect other organs and lead to various complications. Gastroduodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis has been reported. However, little is known about esophageal ulcers. We herein report two rare cases of esophageal ulcers associated with ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, the clinical and histological characteristics of 18 previously reported cases are summarized. This case series and literature review will encourage the accurate diagnosis and treatment of esophageal ulcers associated with ulcerative colitis.

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  • Yoichi Iwafuchi, Koji Domori, Ichiei Narita
    Article ID: 4438-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Shoji Hemmi, Katsumi Kurokawa, Taiji Nagai, Keiichi Yokoi, Toshio Okam ...
    Article ID: 4499-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective To achieve an accurate quantification in diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), we developed a new electrophysiological index that we called the DPN index. The relationship between the DPN index and the neurological findings in diabetic patients was assessed.

    Methods The DPN index was calculated by the mean value of percentages of four parameters (tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude / F wave minimum latency, sural sensory nerve action potential amplitude / sensory nerve conduction velocity) against the mean normal values. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited as a control group.

    Patients A total of 348 diabetic patients who were hospitalized in our hospital during the period from December 2016 to August 2019 were retrospectively studied. The correlations between the DPN index and five neurological findings (subjective sensory symptoms, diminished or absent Achilles tendon reflex, impaired tactile and vibration sense, low coefficient of variation of R-R interval) were evaluated.

    Results The DPN index in healthy subjects was 129.3±32.7%. The DPN index in diabetic patients with one or more neurological findings was significantly lower than that in diabetic patients without any neurological findings (p<0.01: 89.3±27.8% vs. 118.4±21.2%). For each of the five neurological findings, the DPN index in the group with an abnormality was significantly lower than that in the group without any abnormality (each p<0.01). Spearman's correlation coefficients indicated that a greater number of neurological findings resulted in a lower DPN index (r=−0.711, p<0.01).

    Conclusion Our study suggested that the DPN index is useful for evaluating the severity of DPN.

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  • Tomoya Kimura, Mitsuru Sugimoto, Tadayuki Takagi, Rei Suzuki, Naoki Ko ...
    Article ID: 4546-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 78-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a detailed examination of a pancreatic tumor that filled the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The histological diagnosis of the endoscopic biopsy specimen was neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G3. The patient subsequently underwent total pancreatectomy. The histological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was also NET G3. This is the first report of a NET that occupied the MPD and was diagnosed by a preoperative endoscopic biopsy through the papilla of Vater. This case is a good example of a histopathological diagnostic method for pancreatic tumors invading the entire MPD.

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  • Yumiko Samejima, Atsuhiko Iuchi, Tomohiro Kanai, Yoshimi Noda, Shingo ...
    Article ID: 4550-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cardiac side effects associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an uncommon but serious complication with a relatively high mortality. We experienced a case of cardiomyopathy induced by nivolumab. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypo-kinesis of the left ventricular cardiac wall and a significant decrease in the ejection fraction, like dilated cardiomyopathy. The myocardial biopsy showed non-inflammatory change; cardiac function gradually improved after treatment of acute heart failure without a corticosteroid. Although non-inflammatory left ventricular dysfunction induced by ICIs is rare, it is a reported cardiovascular toxicity. Physicians should consider this complication when treating patients with ICIs for malignant diseases.

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  • Hideaki Kinugasa, Sakiko Hiraoka, Shouhei Oka, Okada Hiroyuki
    Article ID: 4609-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Takashi Kosone, Hitoshi Takagi, Satoshi Takakusagi, Takashi Hoshino, Y ...
    Article ID: 4611-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We experienced a case of follicular cholangitis that was positive on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). A 70-year-old man was admitted for jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed stenosis of the middle to upper choledocus. 18F-FDG-PET depicted a localized hot spot at the stenotic lesion (maximum standardized uptake value = 8.2). Although no malignant findings were found in the cytology or on a bile duct biopsy, malignancy could not be excluded, so surgical treatment was performed. Follicular cholangitis is a new, rare disease that causes severe biliary stricture. Only 11 cases of follicular cholangitis have been reported, including the present case.

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  • Kazuhiro Ota, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Akihiro Tsukahara, Shinya Nishida, Ta ...
    Article ID: 4684-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening unsteady gait. Her neurological examination revealed peripheral neuropathy with lower limb sensory dominance. T2-weighted imaging revealed a disorder of the posterior cervical cord. Blood test findings revealed vitamin B12 deficiency, and gastroscopy revealed typical findings of autoimmune gastritis. She received vitamin B12 supplementation, but some peripheral neuropathy symptoms persisted due to longstanding vitamin B12 deficiency. Asymptomatic patients should undergo gastroscopy to detect autoimmune gastritis, as chronic vitamin B12 deficiency causes irreversible peripheral neuropathy.

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  • Shun Uemura, Hironori Kobayashi, Yoshinobu Seki, Yuki Okoshi, Hirohito ...
    Article ID: 4255-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 70-year-old woman was hospitalized for exacerbation of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) from old aortic dissection. Initially, we increased the dose of prednisolone for ITP. However, her bleeding tendency caused by DIC worsened despite the rapid recovery of her platelet count, and the required amount of fresh-frozen plasma for transfusion increased. The administration of edoxaban for atrial fibrillation led to the marked improvement of her DIC status without serious adverse events. This case suggests that a direct oral anticoagulant may be an effective treatment for DIC caused by aortic dissection.

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  • Keigo Koda, Mikio Toyoshima, Tsuyoshi Nozue, Takafumi Suda
    Article ID: 4275-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 69-year-old woman presented with appetite loss, fatigue, and a low-grade fever. She had been receiving certolizumab pegol for rheumatoid arthritis for six years. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple micronodules in both lungs and bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. An ophthalmic examination showed the findings of uveitis. Lymphocytosis with an increased CD4/CD8 ratio was seen in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy specimens obtained from the right lung and a right hilar lymph node showed noncaseous epithelioid cell granulomas. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α-induced sarcoidosis was diagnosed, and she was successfully treated with cessation of certolizumab pegol and systemic corticosteroid therapy.

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  • Shinnosuke Fukushima, Hideharu Hagiya, Yuki Mizuta, Yasuhiro Nakano, M ...
    Article ID: 4283-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Odontogenic infections, generally caused by dental caries and periodontal disease, can result in fatal illness. We herein report a 71-year-old Japanese woman with type 2 diabetes and hemodialysis who suffered from multiple dentofacial abscesses mainly caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus oralis. She complained of pain and swelling of her face, with an extraoral fistula from the left cheek. Following 3 surgical debridement procedures and partial mandibulectomy, in addition to 12 weeks of antimicrobial therapy, the multiple dentofacial abscesses were ameliorated. A combination of surgical and antimicrobial treatments following an early diagnosis is essential for reducing further complications.

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  • Miyuki Okura, Naoko Ida, Takahiro Yamauchi
    Article ID: 4440-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. Inotuzumab Ozogamicin (InO) is a novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of relapsed ALL. InO has received attention as a bridging therapy before transplantation due to its high complete remission (CR) rate. However, the significance of InO in non-transplant patients remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated four non-transplant patients treated with InO. All cases achieved CR after receiving at least two cycles of InO. Three of the four cases survived for more than 11 months without relapse. Moreover, all patients received InO as outpatients, because the adverse events were well-controlled. InO therefore appears to be a beneficial treatment even for non-transplant patients.

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  • Toji Murabayashi, Takahisa Ogawa, Shinsuke Koshita, Yoshihide Kanno, H ...
    Article ID: 4463-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective Recently, a new digital peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) system, the SpyGlass DS (SpyDS), has been used for POCS-guided lithotripsy for difficult bile duct stones (DBDSs). The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of SpyDS-guided electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) for DBDS with that of a conventional digital cholangioscope.

    Methods and Patients Seventeen consecutive patients who had undergone POCS-guided EHL for DBDS with the SpyDS between October 2015 and January 2019 were enrolled in this study group (SpyDS group) using a prospectively maintained database. Fifteen other consecutive patients who had undergone POCS-guided EHL with a conventional digital cholangioscope (CHF-B260) just prior to the introduction of the SpyDS between December 2006 and September 2015 were analyzed as a control group (CHF group). The main outcome measurement was the total procedure time to complete stone removal.

    Results The rate of complete stone removal was 100% for both groups. The mean total procedure time for the SpyDS group was significantly shorter than that for the CHF group (67±30 minutes vs. 107±64 minutes, p=0.038). The mean number of endoscopic sessions for the SpyDS group was significantly lower than that for the CHF group (1.35±0.49 vs. 2.00±0.85, p=0.037). There were no significant differences in the rate of adverse events between the two groups.

    Conclusions The SpyDS appears useful for decreasing the procedure time and number of endoscopic sessions for complete stone removal in POCS-guided EHL for DBDS compared with a conventional digital cholangioscope.

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  • Atsushi Isoda, Yuri Miyazawa, Kenichi Tahara, Masahiro Mihara, Akio Sa ...
    Article ID: 4467-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report a 64-year-old man who was treated with pembrolizumab for relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma. After the third administration of pembrolizumab, he showed acute anemia with a positive direct anti-globulin test. Because of the markedly erythroid hypoplasia, he was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) caused by pembrolizumab. He was initially treated with prednisolone, but the reticulocytes decreased after tapering prednisolone. He then received high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with prednisolone, and PRCA was successfully treated. Although the pathogenesis of PRCA caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) remains unclear, IVIG treatment may be effective for some steroid-refractory CPI-induced PRCA cases.

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  • Hisanori Matsuzawa, Takashi Goto, Shigetoshi Ohshima, Tomomi Shibuya, ...
    Article ID: 4512-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Splenic sarcoidosis is often diagnosed by splenectomy or an ultrasound-guided splenic biopsy. However, splenectomy is invasive and costly, and a percutaneous biopsy is sometimes difficult. We herein report a case of splenic sarcoidosis diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital for abnormal shadows on a chest roentgenogram. Computed tomography showed multiple lesions in the spleen and pulmonary consolidations. Bronchoscopy revealed no definitive diagnosis. We therefore performed EUS-FNA for a splenic lesion that led to the diagnosis. This case suggests that EUS-FNA is useful in confirming the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with suspected splenic lesions.

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  • Tetsuo Fujita, Tsuguko Kuroki, Nami Hayama, Yuka Shiraishi, Hiroyuki A ...
    Article ID: 4552-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective Pembrolizumab has benefited patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a PD-L1 high expression, but little information is available regarding its safety for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of pembrolizumab for patients with advanced NSCLC and preexisting ILD.

    Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of five patients with advanced NSCLC and preexisting ILD who received pembrolizumab monotherapy in a first-line setting.

    Patients or Materials All patients had mild ILD and pulmonary emphysema with a forced vital capacity within the normal range. Pembrolizumab was administered at a dose of 200 mg/body on day 1 every 3 weeks.

    Results The overall response rate was 60%. Four patients developed pembrolizumab-induced lung injury, which was improved in all cases by corticosteroid therapy. One patient received pembrolizumab for two years, did not experience lung injury and achieved a complete response.

    Conclusion Pembrolizumab has a high risk of inducing lung injury in patients with preexisting ILD, although it may be very effective in NSCLC patients with a high PD-L1 expression, even concurrent with preexisting ILD. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine risk factors of pembrolizumab-induced lung injury in such patients.

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  • Atsushi Goto, Jun Nishikawa, Misato Nagao, Isao Sakaida
    Article ID: 4811-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Daisuke Himeji, Gen-ichi Tanaka, Chikara Fukuyama, Ritsuya Shiiba, Ats ...
    Article ID: 3900-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of endoscopic bronchial occlusion (EBO) with endobronchial Watanabe spigots (EWSs) for the management of prolonged pulmonary air leaks, such as intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with bronchial fistula, and postoperative air leakage.

    Patients and Methods Between April 2005 and March 2015, we recruited 21 patients with intractable pneumothorax (10 cases), pyothorax with bronchial fistula (7 cases), and postsurgical pulmonary fistula (4 cases) in whom appropriate drainage for 2 weeks had been unsuccessful and who were unsuitable for surgery. An EWS was inserted using a flexible bronchoscope via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube.

    Results The mean number of sessions with EWS procedures was 1.94, and the mean number of inserted EWS per patient was 6.5. In addition to EWS procedures, pleural washing and pleural adhesion therapy were performed in all cases with pyothorax, whereas pleural adhesion therapy was performed in three patients with pneumothorax. The successful treatment rate was 85.7%. Reduction of air leakage was observed in 19/21 patients. The mean duration of reduction of air leaks was 4.1 days (median, 1; range, 0-24 days) following EWS procedures. The mean duration from tube insertion to chest tube removal was 43.4 days (median, 29; range, 16-105 days). Complications included spigot migration and infection (aspergillosis); no complications caused significant mortality.

    Conclusions Performing EBO using an EWS appears to be a reasonable option for the management of intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with pulmonary fistula, and postoperative air leakage.

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  • Takashi Onuma, Mami Iida, Yuko Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Akiko Kojima, Kiyo ...
    Article ID: 4000-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for arteriopathy, including acute coronary syndrome, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Thus, cessation is strongly recommended in order to reduce these risks. We recently demonstrated that smoking cessation causes temporary hyper-aggregability of human platelets. We previously showed that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is released from human platelets stimulated by collagen, accompanied by its phosphorylation. Accumulating evidence indicates potent roles of extracellular HSP27 as a modulator of inflammation. In the present study, using the stored samples obtained in the previous study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoking cessation on the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from collagen-activated human platelets (n=15 patients).

    Methods We enrolled patients who visited smoking cessation outpatient services between January 2012 and November 2014. Platelet-rich plasma, chronologically obtained before and after the cessation, was stimulated by collagen using a PA-200 aggregometer in the previous study. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 released from platelets were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation of HSP27 in platelets was evaluated by a Western blot analysis.

    Results Cessation of cigarette smoking significantly upregulated the levels of collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 at four and eight weeks after quitting smoking compared to before cessation. However, there was no significant difference between the levels before cessation and those at 12 weeks after cessation. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 stimulated by collagen in the platelets at four weeks after smoking cessation were remarkably enhanced compared to before cessation.

    Conclusion Cigarette smoking cessation temporarily enhances the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets in the short term.

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  • Masanobu Ueno, Kazuhisa Nakano, Ippei Miyagawa, Yoshiya Tanaka
    Article ID: 4127-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report five patients with nasal mucosa and sinus involvement who were diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In all cases, the lacrimal, parotid, and submandibular glands were swollen; biopsies of these glands were risky, so the labium and nasal mucosa were instead targeted. All patients tested positive through these biopsies, suggesting alternative sites for confirming IgG4-RD. These five patients had first been diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated for allergic rhinitis or chronic sinusitis. After the IgG4-RD diagnosis, they were administered corticosteroid therapy, which drastically improved the nasal mucosa and sinus involvement. When refractory allergic rhinitis or sinusitis is detected, IgG4-RD should be considered.

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  • Yuki Otsuka, Ko Harada, Miho Yasuda, Yasuhiro Nakano, Kou Hasegawa, Fu ...
    Article ID: 4337-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Adrenal insufficiency patients are treated with glucocorticoid replacement therapy. However, mimicking the in vivo circadian rhythm of cortisol levels is challenging, and suboptimal replacement increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. We herein report a case of coronary spastic angina (CSA) with simultaneous low early-morning serum cortisol levels in a patient undergoing corticosteroid replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency. Steroid therapy is reportedly effective for refractory angina, but underlying adrenal deficiency has never been revealed. Our case intimates the probable risk of CSA as a complication of relative adrenal insufficiency and highlights the effectiveness of dexamethasone in these patients.

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  • Seiya Izumida, Hiroaki Kawano, Akira Tsuneto, Yoshiyuki Doi, Koji Maem ...
    Article ID: 4415-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 73-year-old Japanese man was admitted with an asymptomatic pulmonary artery aneurysm. However, chest X-ray and contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography revealed a protrusion at the second left branch that in fact was a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a diameter of 50 mm. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a bicuspid pulmonary valve, and cardiac catheterization revealed pulmonary stenosis with a pressure gradient of 45 mmHg, but no other heart diseases were noted. An extremely rare pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an isolated bicuspid pulmonary valve was diagnosed.

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  • Hiroaki Ogata, Eiji Harada, Soichiro Moriya, Satoru Fukuyama, Kunihiro ...
    Article ID: 4457-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An asymptomatic 47-year-old woman was admitted with pleural effusion and pulmonary infiltrates 1 month after ingesting raw wild boar and deer meat. Both her blood and pleural fluid were eosinophilic. Thoracoscopy revealed multiple nodules of the pleura, and biopsy samples of the nodules showed necrosis with epithelioid cell granulomas. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive for antibodies against Paragonimus westermani, and the patient was successfully treated with praziquantel. This is the first reported case of pulmonary or pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis where several pleural nodules were observed. The detection of pleural nodules on thoracoscopy can contribute to the prompt and accurate diagnosis of paragonimiasis.

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  • Kazuhide Takata, Fuminori Ishii, Yotaro Uchida, Hiromi Fukuda, Ryo Yam ...
    Article ID: 4479-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after a sustained virologic response (SVR) due to interferon (IFN) therapy for hepatitis C virus infection remains a serious problem. We herein report 2 cases of HCC that developed more than 20 years after SVR with IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C. The patients were 89- and 72-year-old men with HCC that developed 24-25 years after an SVR with IFN therapy. These patients regularly underwent imaging examinations; therefore, the HCC was detected in the early stage, when it was still curable. Both cases suggest that long-term surveillance after an SVR is effective for the detection of HCC, and radical treatment is possible.

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  • Haruna Fukuzaki, Kentaro Fukuda, Akihiro Sato, Masayuki Shiozaki, Naoz ...
    Article ID: 4716-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare condition with a poor prognosis, and patients are at risk for sudden cardiac death. A prompt diagnosis and early treatment are therefore essential. A 68-year-old woman was admitted for shortness of breath and peripheral edema. Echocardiograms showed massive pericardial effusion and a mass on the free wall of the right atrium and ventricle. Subsequent pericardial effusion cytology revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We started chemotherapy with rituximab and achieved a good clinical course. This case is made unique by the use of pericardial effusion cytology, which allowed us to diagnose primary cardiac lymphoma promptly and safely.

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  • Hidetaka Mitsumura, Ayumi Arai, Kenichiro Sakai, Yuka Terasawa, Jun Ku ...
    Article ID: 3788-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An 81-year-old woman presented to our emergency room by ambulance with gait disturbance and pain in her left neck. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute left-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction and an occluded left vertebral artery. The temporal bone echo window was insufficient, but our pastable soft ultrasound probe attached to the cervix (PSUP) detected many microembolic signals caused by the contrast agent (cMES) in the common carotid artery. Chest CT revealed right pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) and she underwent coil embolization for PAVF considering the possibility of paradoxical embolism via PAVF. After embolization, the cMES disappeared on PSUP. Therefore, PSUP was useful for diagnosing and confirming the interventional procedural success for performing PAVF.

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  • Satoshi Morinaka, Yohei Takano, Hiroto Tsuboi, Daisuke Goto, Takayuki ...
    Article ID: 4067-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cogan's syndrome (CS), a rare vasculitis characterized by non-syphilitic, interstitial keratitis and Ménière-like attacks, is classified into "typical" and "atypical" forms, while Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a rare large-vessel vasculitis associated with HLA-B*52. Very few cases meet both the CS and TAK classification criteria. We herein report a 53-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical CS and aortitis similar to TAK. Her 25-year-old daughter manifested TAK without symptoms of CS, and both are HLA-B*52 positive. Our case highlights the difficulties of distinguishing aortitis with atypical CS from aortitis with TAK.

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  • Tomoaki Shima, Shuhei Tsujino, Kairi Yamashita, Takuro Hirayama, Kaori ...
    Article ID: 4226-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 25-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to tonic convulsion with severe headache after having experienced symptoms of nausea and vomiting for a month. Brain MRI showed extensive symmetrical lesions in the cortical and subcortical areas of parieto-occipital lobes and basal ganglia, consistent with typical characteristics of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Furthermore, some residual lesions in the left side of dorsal medulla oblongata and central area of the cervical spinal cord along with the presence of serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody yielded the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). We herein discuss the mechanism by which PRES may occur together with NMOSD.

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  • Yuki Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Ohbe, Miho Ishimaru, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide F ...
    Article ID: 4308-19
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) has been routinely used to treat bleeding; however, no study has examined the effect of CSS for gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of CSS for colonic diverticular bleeding.

    Methods We performed a nationwide observational study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database. We identified patients who were admitted for diverticular bleeding from July 2010 to March 2018. Patients who received CSS on the day of admission were defined as the CSS group, and those not receiving CSS were defined as the control group. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, total costs, and blood transfusion within 7 days of admission. Propensity score matching analyses were performed to compare outcomes between the two groups.

    Results A total of 59,965 patients met our eligibility criteria. Of these, 14,437 (24%) patients received CSS on the day of admission. One-to-one propensity score matching created 14,379 matched pairs. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality between the CSS and control groups (0.6% vs. 0.5%, respectively; odds ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.29). The length of stay was longer in the CSS group than in the control group (11.4 vs. 11.0 days, respectively; difference: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.73). There were no significant differences in the total costs or the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusion between the groups.

    Conclusions CSS may not reduce in-hospital mortality, length of stay, total costs, or the need for blood transfusion in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding.

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  • Ryoji Miyano, Naohiro Uchio, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hideyuki Matsumoto
    Article ID: 4411-20
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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