Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 248 articles from Advance online publication
  • Takeshi Saraya, Masachika Fujiwara, Kikuko Morita, Takayasu Watanabe, ...
    Article ID: 0867-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with stage IIC nodular malignant melanoma (T4bN0M0) of the right upper arm. The tumor was treatment-refractory, and left-sided pleural effusion emerged 1.5 years later. Aspiration of pleural fluid revealed abundant amelanotic, atypical cells that resembled epithelial malignant mesothelioma or lung adenocarcinoma cells; these cells were positive for melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T cells (MART-1)/Melan-A, HMB-45, and S-100 on immunocytochemistry. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) revealed marked diffuse pleural thickening in the left hemithorax that mimicked malignant mesothelioma; thus, the present report describes the unique cytological and radiological findings of this case.

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  • Saho Takaya, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
    Article ID: 0871-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Narihiro Shibukawa, Shohei Ouchi, Shuji Wakamatsu, Yuhei Wakahara, Aki ...
    Article ID: 0925-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: The detection of early gastric cancer (GC) after Helicobacter pylori eradication is expected to increase in Japan. However, the predictive markers for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication have not been extensively studied. We conducted a retrospective, single-center observational study to investigate the predictive markers for early GC detected after H. pylori eradiation.

    Methods: A total of 421 patients underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for early GC at NTT West Osaka Hospital between June 2006 and August 2017. Data from patients with GC (Group C; n=70) and without GC (Group NC; n=114) after H. pylori eradication were analyzed.

    Results: The proportion of men was significantly higher in Group C than in Group NC (92.9% vs. 65.8%; p<0.0001). Complications with other malignant diseases were more prevalent in Group C than in Group NC. A significantly greater proportion of patients had gastric xanthoma (GX) in Group C than in Group NC (64.3% vs. 14.9%; p<0.0001). Regarding scores for endoscopic findings related to the risk of GC, the atrophy score, intestinal metaplasia score and total score were significantly higher in Group C than in Group NC. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified male sex, atrophy (open type), the presence of intestinal metaplasia and GX as independent predictors for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication. An atrophy-matched control analysis also identified GX as an independent predictor.

    Conclusion: GX is a novel predictive marker for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication.

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  • Ryo Yamauchi, Kazuhide Takata, Yoshinobu Shinagawa, Takashi Tanaka, Hi ...
    Article ID: 0973-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    A 70-year-old man was admitted for treatment of a single liver nodule that was detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Twenty years earlier, the patient had been diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia and secondary hemochromatosis but had not received erythrocyte transfusions. The current histological, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-cirrhotic liver hemochromatosis. The liver tumor was treated using radiofrequency ablation therapy. Secondary hemochromatosis may be a risk factor for HCC, even if the liver is not cirrhotic. In such cases, additional surveillance may be required to detect the development of HCC.

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  • Hiroaki Kawabata, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Yuko Yamamichi, Keiko Shirahase, ...
    Article ID: 0993-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Objective Tolvaptan is a class of diuretics that reduce body water through aquaresis. One of the most prominent characteristics of these agents is that worsening of the renal function is less likely to occur. We investigated the underlying mechanism concerning the change in the intracellular fluid (ICF) when the body fluid is reduced.

    Methods In this retrospective observational study, five overhydrated CKD patients with edema or pleural effusion treated with tolvaptan were assessed by the bioelectrical impedance method twice: once before and once after tolvaptan therapy. The changes in the ICF rate were compared with those in 11 hemodialysis patients undergoing body fluid reduction by hemodialysis.

    Results Removal of the body fluid either by tolvaptan or by hemodialysis increased the post/pre-ratio of ICW/total body water (TBW). Tolvaptan reduced the ICF more efficiently than hemodialysis.

    Conclusion Tolvaptan treatment lessens body fluid by the efficient reduction of the ICF.

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  • Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Yuko Iwasaki, Manabu Wada, Naoki Makita, Hikaru ...
    Article ID: 1010-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Two patients who showed transient lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) secondary to acute ischemic stroke are reported. Both patients had embolic strokes and showed an isolated lesion in the SCC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1-2 weeks after the onset of stroke, with a hyperintense lesion on DWI and decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, with no symptoms related to the lesion. In both cases, the lesion disappeared on MRI approximately 1 week later. Clinicians should note that transient SCC lesions can occur following acute ischemic stroke and avoid misdiagnosing them and performing unnecessary examinations or treatment.

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  • Ayumu Takahashi, Akihito Kubo, Shohei Mizuno, Kenji Kasai, Nobuhiro As ...
    Article ID: 1011-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    A 73-year-old man who was a current smoker complained of weakness in his limbs and slow movement and was diagnosed with primary lung melanoma with brain metastases. Following stereotactic brain radiotherapy, nivolumab was administrated. After the first cycle of nivolumab, his blood neutrophil count and hemoglobin levels started to decline. Excluding other possible causes, nivolumab was considered the most probable cause of bicytopenia. Nivolumab was not restarted, and the bicytopenia gradually recovered with no corticosteroid administration for this event. While serious hematological adverse events regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors have been assumed to be rare, severe neutropenia and anemia should be considered in patients receiving immune checkpoint therapy.

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  • Tamami Watanabe, Takeshi Yamashita, Hitoshi Sugawara, Takahiko Fukuchi ...
    Article ID: 1105-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Our case patient was a 38-year-old pregnant Japanese woman who underwent emergency Caesarean section because of massive vaginal bleeding due to a low-lying placenta. Immediately after delivery, she presented with rapidly progressive dyspnea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed bilateral pleural effusion, lung nodules, multiple liver tumors, and multiple osteolytic lesions. Accordingly, epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. This report highlights the occurrence of rapid progression of lung cancer following delivery that led to postpartum acute respiratory failure, rather than due to pulmonary thromboembolism associated with the existing deep venous thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

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  • Tomoki Kobayashi, Keishi Kanno, Yuka Kikuchi, Masaki Kakimoto, Akihiro ...
    Article ID: 1167-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 78-year-old woman with fever of unknown origin that had persisted for 3 months, systemic edema, and cervical lymphadenopathy was admitted to our hospital. Skin purpura and jaw claudication were subsequently observed. Histopathological examinations of the lymph nodes, skin, and temporal artery revealed findings characteristic of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). However, she had no past medical history of asthma with modest eosinophilia. Although EGPA is a systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and eosinophilia, various limited forms have been described. This was therefore considered to be an atypical form of non-asthmatic EGPA complicating with temporal arteritis (TA) diagnosed by tissue biopsy.

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  • Shioto Yasuda, Mitsuhiro Fukata, Taku Yokoyama, Takeshi Arita, Keita O ...
    Article ID: 1229-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 58-year-old woman complained of general fatigue and was diagnosed with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) by ambulatory electrocardiogram, which demonstrated sinus arrest at midnight and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) at nighttime. Since her plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity had been persistently zero, she was diagnosed with ChE deficiency. She refused permanent pacemaker implantation, and treatment with positive chronotropic drugs is ongoing. A novel association of ChE deficiency with SSS is theoretically possible rather than coincident, considering that ChE plays a key role in cholinergic influences on the sinus node leading to sinus bradyarrhythmia and on the atria, causing vagally mediated AF.

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  • Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Momoka Kamada
    Article ID: 1264-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Marika Okuni, Kimikazu Yakushijin, Keiichiro Uehara, Hiroya Ichikawa, ...
    Article ID: 1266-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. She received different types of chemotherapy, but disease progression was observed. To reduce the tumor burden before an unrelated bone marrow transplantation, combination chemotherapy consisting of the gemcitabine, carboplatin, and dexamethasone (GCD) was administered as bridging therapy, resulting in a reduction in the number of lymphoma cells. We were then able to perform bone marrow transplantation. Although she experienced some adverse events, she successfully achieved long-term remission. We herein report a successful case of HSTCL treated with unrelated stem cell transplantation following the GCD regimen as bridging chemotherapy.

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  • Yuka Mishima, Takahiro Fukaishi, Naohiko Inase, Susumu Isogai
    Article ID: 1268-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Nivolumab-induced multiple organ immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been described in some case reports. The symptoms of endocrinological irAEs are especially nonspecific. A 63-year-old man with a postoperative recurrence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma who was treated with nivolumab presented fever, anorexia and fatigue after the 7th cycle. He underwent a rapid adrenocorticotrophic hormone test, four-hormone tolerance test and thyroid gland scintigraphy. The results were consistent with destructive thyroiditis, hypophysitis and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Nivolumab was restarted following glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone replacement treatment. When a patient presents nonspecific symptoms, the possibility of endocrinological irAEs should be considered as it may enable their early detection.

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  • Erina Tabata, Akimasa Sekine, Eri Hagiwara, Michihiko Tajiri, Takashi ...
    Article ID: 1370-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report three cases of refractory Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease successfully treated surgically despite the MAC lesions being present bilaterally. Of note, although two patients did not present with any respiratory symptom, bronchoscopy clearly revealed a major excretory lesion with a large amount of purulent sputum in all patients. Because an excretory lesion was localized, surgical resection was performed, and the mycobacterial sputum smear became negative in all patients. Bronchoscopy may be a useful examination for detecting major excretory lesions with purulent sputum, which can disseminate to other lobes, and for determining the surgical indications of refractory MAC patients, regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms.

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  • Kengo Maeda, Hiroshi Wada, Yoshitomo Ozaki, Akitoshi Inoue
    Article ID: 1469-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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  • Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Shota Nakashima, Hirokazu Yura, Tak ...
    Article ID: 1516-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibody is associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) or dermatomyositis (DM). We herein report three Japanese cases of anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM. High-resolution computed tomography revealed patchy or subpleural distribution of consolidations and/or ground-glass opacities accompanied by traction bronchiectasis. All patients succumbed to respiratory failure within two months. Anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute/subacute ILD. Measurement of anti-MDA5 antibody and an intensive immunosuppressive regimen might rescue these patients from RP-ILD.

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  • Ai Fujimoto, Motoki Sasaki, Osamu Goto, Tadateru Maehata, Yasutoshi Oc ...
    Article ID: 1517-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The vertical margin of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is often tumor-positive. We examine the treatment results of endoscopic mucosal resection with a ligation device (EMR-L) for the removal of duodenal NETs located in the submucosal layer without metastasis. EMR-L can be performed with less technical skill, and the ligation device reduces the rate of positive vertical margin.

    Methods Ten consecutive patients with 10 duodenal NETs resected by EMR-L were enrolled. All of the lesions were located in the submucosal layer, were assessed to be free of metastasis, and were confirmed to be NETs pathologically by an endoscopic biopsy. The endoscopic results, pathological results, and prognosis were all examined.

    Results The enbloc resection rate and endoscopic complete resection rate were both 100%. Complete resection was achieved pathologically in 7 lesions (70.0%). The vertical margins were negative in all cases. Lymphatic vessel invasion was observed in three patients, all of whom underwent additional surgery with lymph node dissection (one of them also exhibited blood vessel invasion and a positive horizontal margin). No evidence of residual tumors or lymph node metastasis was observed in any of the patients. No recurrence was observed in any of the 10 patients (mean follow-up period: 18.6 months). One patient (10.0%) experienced intraoperative bleeding. Perforation occurred in 1 patient (10.0%), but the condition was managed well by conservative therapy.

    Conclusion EMR-L was an acceptable method for endoscopically resecting submucosal duodenal NETs, and the NETs resected by EMR-L were tumor-negative in the vertical margins.

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  • Sayo Ueda, Taichi Murakami, Hirokazu Ogino, Motokazu Matsuura, Masanor ...
    Article ID: 1558-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with sarcoidosis involving the lungs, eyes, parotid gland and extrathoracic lymph nodes complicated by chronic kidney injury and hypercalcemia. Kidney biopsy showed non-specific interstitial nephritis and nephrosclerosis. However, immunohistochemical staining of cell surface markers revealed a multinucleated giant macrophage surrounded by T-cells, suggesting granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Corticosteroid improved the kidney function, and reduced the serum levels of calcium and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Sarcoid nephropathy may be caused by the combination of several sarcoidosis-associated pathophysiological conditions and a comprehensive kidney examination should be performed to assess the type of injury when determining a treatment strategy.

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  • Takashi Hirose, Kohei Funasaka, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Takeshi Yamamura, T ...
    Article ID: 1628-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome is a rare entity, characterized by dysphagia, esophageal web formation, and iron deficiency anemia. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a clinical history of iron deficiency anemia and glossitis in her 20s to 40s and who had experienced swallowing difficulties for the past 20 years. A membranous stricture was found in the cervical esophagus during a fluoroscopic examination. An endoscopic examination conducted under general anesthesia revealed an oblique linear scar on the proximal surface of the stricture. Sequential balloon dilation was performed successfully. We suggest that the esophageal web formation might have been related to the healing of an esophageal ulcer.

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  • Misato Ogata, Yukimasa Hatachi, Takatsugu Ogata, Hironaga Satake, Yuki ...
    Article ID: 1640-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), a rare sarcoma, is primarily treated via resection of the mass. However, in cases of recurrence or unresectable tumors, no standard care exists. While crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, is only approved for non-small-cell lung cancer with ALK mutation, it is reportedly effective for other malignant tumors with ALK mutation. We herein report a case involving a 37-year-old woman with retroperitoneal IMT with ALK mutation, who experienced recurrence after complete resection, in whom crizotinib treatment resulted in complete response. ALK-inhibitor efficacy against malignancies with ALK mutations should be investigated in future.

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  • Tomoya Kon, Yukihisa Funamizu, Chieko Suzuki, Tsugumi Sato, Hidekachi ...
    Article ID: 1667-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon vasculitis restricted to the small- and medium-sized vessels in the brain and spinal cord. Previously, only 9 cases have been reported that initially manifested as an isolated spinal cord lesion with subsequent brain involvement, where the longest interval from the onset to brain involvement was 1 year and 11 months. We herein report the case of an isolated spinal cord lesion with subsequent brain involvement appearing seven years and five months later. This case shows that brain lesions can develop after an extended interval from spinal onset in PCNSV.

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  • Yasuhiro Suyama, Masato Okada, Taiki Nozaki, Keiichi Furukawa
    Article ID: 1684-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Eiichi Sato, Atsushi Togawa, Michio Masaki, Akihiko Shirahashi, Midori ...
    Article ID: 1706-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report a case of systemic phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis (E. dermatitidis) with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient had been taking oral corticosteroids for years to control the GVHD. Yeast-like fungi were identified in a blood culture, so treatment with micafungin (150 mg/day) was begun, with no improvement. The patient passed away on hospital Day 12. A sequence analysis of rRNA revealed the isolate to be E. dermatitidis. This report brings attention to an emerging mycosis of community-acquired Exophiala species infection in the very-late phase after allogenic HSCT in patients with chronic GVHD.

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  • Yusuke Seino, Takumi Nakamura, Mie Hirohata, Takeshi Kawarabayashi, To ...
    Article ID: 1723-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with severe chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) who developed progressive tetraplegia with respiratory failure despite receiving a standard dose of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg), steroid pulse therapy, plasma exchange, and cyclosporine. We administered high-dose IVIg (3 g/kg; 0.6 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days at monthly intervals). The patient's muscle weakness gradually improved after IVIg. She recovered completely 2 years after the onset of symptoms. The effects of IVIg treatment in individuals with CIDP may vary in each patient. In patients with refractory CIDP receiving standard-dose IVIg, repeated high-dose IVIg treatment can be considered.

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  • Shuku Sato, Emiko Kambe, Yotaro Tamai
    Article ID: 1726-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) during treatment with daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (DRd). A 62-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with IgGλ type MM, was treated with three cycles of bortezomib and dexamethasone and subsequently treated with three cycles of DRd before admission. She reached a stringent complete response and presented with lethargy and seizure. Laboratory findings revealed severe CD4 lymphopenia, and Cryptococcus neoformans was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. The risk of developing an opportunistic infection should be considered in patients treated with daratumumab.

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  • Kyoichi Adachi, Takumi Notsu, Tomoko Mishiro, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
    Article ID: 1751-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The recently reported endoscopic finding of black spots is defined as black pigmentation in gastric mucosa. We attempted to clarify the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection status and black spot occurrence.

    Subjects and methods The study subjects were 1,600 individuals who underwent an annual medical checkup and whose H. pylori status could be determined. Upper endoscopic examinations were performed in all, and the presence of black spots in the stomach as well as the degree of gastric mucosal atrophy were determined.

    Results Among the 1,600 enrolled subjects, 784 underwent eradication for H. pylori, of whom 144 were originally H. pylori-positive and 672 H. pylori-negative. Black spots in the stomach were observed in 156 (9.8%). The rate of prevalence of black spots in the H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative subjects was 2.1% and 1.5%, respectively, while that in subjects after undergoing eradication of H. pylori was 18.2%. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that an older age and post-eradication status were significant factors for black spot occurrence, while proton pump inhibitor treatment showed a tendency to be a risk factor. In subjects with post-eradication status, a higher grade of gastric mucosal atrophy was a significant risk factor for the occurrence of black spots.

    Conclusion H. pylori post-eradication status and an older age were significant factors related to the appearance of black spots, and a higher grade of gastric mucosal atrophy was also a significant risk factor in subjects who had undergone successful eradication.

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  • Mayuki Omatsu, Kohei Yamakawa, Jyunya Taki, Shujiro Yazumi
    Article ID: 1758-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Natsumi Okamoto, Eiichi Hayashi, Mitsuhiro Tsukino
    Article ID: 1780-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Shin-ya Kawashiri, Yushiro Edo, Atsushi Kawakami
    Article ID: 1782-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 53-year-old Japanese man experienced fever/neck pain, and neck magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal epidural abscess. The following day, he developed a palpable mass with evident inflammatory signs in the right sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) with severe pain. Ultrasound revealed synovitis with remarkable power Doppler signals in the right SCJ. Blood cultures yielded Streptococcus agalactiae growth. After 12 days, ultrasound showed right distal clavicle bone erosion. His symptoms improved with long-term parenteral antibiotic treatment, but the right SCJ joint destruction progressed for several months. We diagnosed him with sternoclavicular septic arthritis complicated with a spinal epidural abscess and bacteremia.

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  • Shogo Matsuda, Makoto Nishikata, Koji Takai, Takayuki Motoyoshi, Yasuh ...
    Article ID: 1805-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We present an extremely rare case of amyloid A (AA) deposition in the gallbladder and review the literature on similar cases. The patient was a 76-year-old man who had been diagnosed with mild bronchiectasis three years previously, who was admitted to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever. Computed tomography revealed swelling and wall thickening of the gallbladder with a small gallstone. The patient was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis and underwent open cholecystectomy. A postoperative histological examination revealed extensive AA deposition in the gallbladder wall. Thus, the definitive diagnosis was acute cholecystitis with AA amyloidosis.

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  • Takahiro Ando, Satoshi Noguchi, Takako Enokida, Azusa Yamato, Hidenori ...
    Article ID: 1806-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Citrobacter species can cause severe infection in immunocompetent patients. A 78-year-old man visited our hospital because he had had a fever lasting one day each month for the past 3 months. Antibiotics were initiated for suspected bronchial pneumonia, but the C-reactive protein level remained high. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed saccular brachiocephalic artery aneurysm. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from a blood culture, and he was diagnosed with infectious brachiocephalic artery aneurysm. He underwent endovascular aneurysm repair after one month of intravenous cefepime and metronidazole. We herein report for the first time an immunocompetent patient with infectious aneurysm caused by C. koseri periodontal infection.

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  • Eiji Kitamura, Yuko Kondo, Naomi Kanazawa, Tsugio Akutsu, Kazutoshi Ni ...
    Article ID: 1846-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an immune-mediated encephalitis characterized by the subacute onset of memory deficits, altered mental status, or psychiatric symptoms. Limbic encephalitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been reported yet. A 57-year-old man presented with the subacute onset of headache, depression, and anorexia 7 months before the onset of RA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetric parenchymal lesions involving the medial temporal lobes. He was diagnosed with RA and AE, but no autoantibodies to neuronal intracellular or cell-surface antigens were identified in either the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms improved with immunotherapy. AE can develop as an extra-articular manifestation of RA.

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  • Ayaka Umetsu, Toshimasa Shimizu, Naoki Iwamoto, Keiichi Hashiguchi, Mi ...
    Article ID: 1847-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a fever and pain in both lower extremities and the right shoulder and right upper arm continuously for approximately 3 months. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG/PET-CT) revealed the accumulation of FDG in the right shoulder, lumbar spinous processes, both ischial tuberosities, and both hips and greater trochanters, indicating polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). In addition, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed esophageal carcinoma. After endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed, her musculoskeletal symptoms spontaneously improved, and the 18F-FDG/PET-CT findings decreased. In light of these findings, she was diagnosed with paraneoplastic syndrome. When atypical features of PMR, such as asymmetric symptoms occur, we should search for malignancies.

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  • Tomoki Horie, Taishi Yonetsu, Masahiro Hoshino, Tsunekazu Kakuta
    Article ID: 1850-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Yudai Koya, Michihiko Shibata, Michio Senju, Yuichi Honma, Masaaki Hiu ...
    Article ID: 1851-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 52-year-old woman developed vomiting and disturbance of consciousness after consuming raw fish and sushi on a trip. A blood test showed hyperammonemia (310 μg/dL) with a normal liver function. She fell into a deep coma, and her serum ammonia level increased to 684 μg/dL. L-arginine was administered as a diagnostic treatment for urea cycle disorder (UCD) and serum ammonia, and her consciousness levels improved. She was diagnosed with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) by analyses of plasma amino acids, urinary orotic acid, and the OTC gene mutation. UCD should be considered for patients with hyperammonemia without severe liver function abnormalities.

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  • Takuya Sho, Goki Suda, Megumi Kimura, Tomoe Shimazaki, Osamu Maehara, ...
    Article ID: 1856-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The efficacy and safety of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in Japanese patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or genotype 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet to be clarified. This is because no or only a few patients have been included in Japanese phase 3 trials. We herein report for the first time the successful treatment of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in three Japanese patients with HIV and genotype 3 HCV coinfection as well as hemophilia. Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir treatment is safe and effective for Japanese patients with genotype 3 HCV and HIV coinfection.

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  • Ikki Sakuma, Hidekazu Nagano, Ichiro Yoshino, Koutaro Yokote, Tomoaki ...
    Article ID: 1870-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report a 75-year-old woman with insulin-treated diabetes and metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer who received ceritinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, and achieved dramatic tumor reduction. However, her fasting blood glucose increased, particularly markedly in the first two weeks after ceritinib administration, and did not normalize even increasing the total insulin dose. After discontinuing ceritinib, her glucose levels rapidly reduced. Ceritinib can aggravate hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes who lack compensatory insulin secretion, due to its inhibitory effects on the insulin receptor. Careful monitoring for ceritinib-induced hyperglycemia should be performed, especially in the first two weeks after ceritinib administration.

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  • Hisako Kushima, Hiroshi Ishii, Rikako Shima, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Kenta ...
    Article ID: 1889-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report a rare case of diffuse pulmonary metastasis occurring approximately one year after surgical excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma that had been thought to be stage I with a free margin of healthy tissue. In addition, this case had chest imaging findings unusual for a skin cancer patient, showing a miliary pattern on computed tomography. Distant metastases may develop even if early-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is completely resected. When observing a miliary shadow on chest computed tomography, metastatic lung tumor from skin cancer should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

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  • Kazuhiro Hongyo, Futoshi Nakagami, Hideharu Hagiya, Hiromi Rakugi
    Article ID: 1900-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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  • Hiroki Sato, Shunzo Ikarashi, Shuji Terai
    Article ID: 1908-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 17-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with an inability to belch, while experiencing chest gurgling noises, and severe abdominal bloating. She reported having these symptoms all her life. A timed barium esophagogram revealed a moderate amount of bubbles in the esophagus and gastric fundus, which significantly increased after the examination. High resolution manometry revealed that the basal upper esophageal sphincter pressure increased with a rise in the cervical esophageal pressure. A pathological inability to belch is rare; at present, no specific name exists to describe the disorder. Further research is needed in this unexplored field.

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  • Nozomi Morita, Kazunari Nakahara, Ryo Morita, Keigo Suetani, Yosuke Mi ...
    Article ID: 1923-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The efficacy and safety of concomitant use of antithrombin (AT) with recombinant soluble human thrombomodulin (rTM) for acute cholangitis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (AC-induced DIC) remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of AT combined with rTM as anticoagulant therapy for AC-induced DIC.

    Methods One hundred patients with AC-induced DIC received anticoagulant therapy using rTM from April 2010 to December 2017. Of the 83 patients treated with rTM immediately after the diagnosis of DIC, excluding those who had not undergone biliary drainage or who had malignancies or a serum AT III level >70%, 56 patients were studied. Outcomes and adverse events (AEs) were retrospectively compared between the 16 patients treated with rTM alone (rTM group) and the 40 patients treated with rTM and AT (rTM+AT group).

    Results Patients' background characteristics did not differ markedly, except for a significantly higher serum D-dimer level in the rTM group than in the rTM+AT group (p=0.038). The DIC resolution rates on day 9 were 100% and 95.1% in the rTM and rTM+AT groups, respectively (p=0.909). The mean DIC scores were significantly lower in the rTM group than in the rTM+AT group on days 3 (p=0.012), 5 (p<0.001), 7 (p=0.033), and 9 (p=0.007). The incidence of AEs was 6.3% and 10.0% (p=0.941), and the in-hospital mortality rates was 0% and 5.0% (p=0.909) in the rTM and rTM+AT groups, respectively.

    Conclusions The concomitant use of AT with anticoagulant therapy using rTM for AC-induced DIC may not help improve the treatment outcome.

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  • Kenji Yamazaki, Kentaro Kojima, Hitoshi Iwata, Ryoji Kushima
    Article ID: 1933-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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  • Masatake Nishiwaki, Chiemi Mizuno, Masayuki Mizuno, Toshihide Shima
    Article ID: 1959-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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  • Kazuya Ishiguro, Tohru Takahashi
    Article ID: 2105-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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  • Takeaki Hidaka, Saki Okuzumi, Ako Matsuhashi, Hidenori Takahashi, Kazu ...
    Article ID: 0437-17
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a highly malignant cancer originally found in lung in 1991. In extremely rare occasions, primary LCNEC is found in the mediastinum; approximately 40 of such cases have been reported. Due to the limited number of reported cases, a standardized treatment protocol has yet to be established. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with primary mediastinal LCNEC who presented with superior vena cava syndrome. Emergent radiotherapy was performed, followed by systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, which resulted in a dramatic tumor reduction. This is the first report describing the achievement of a complete response after systemic chemotherapy in a patient with primary LCNEC.

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  • Naohiko Yoshida, Teruki Miyake, Shin Yamamoto, Shinya Furukawa, Hideno ...
    Article ID: 0760-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective Skeletal muscle is the main target organ for glycemic control, and the serum creatinine level is a convenient indicator of the skeletal muscle mass. This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between the serum creatinine level and the onset of impaired fasting glucose (IFG).

    Methods In this large, community-based, retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we examined the records of 7,905 Japanese participants (3,863 men, 4,042 women) of 18-80 years of age who underwent annual health checkups at a single center between April 2003 and August 2013. After applying the exclusion criteria, 6,490 participants were reviewed to identify those with the onset of IFG, defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM. Among the participants, 278 met the criterion for the onset of IFG during the observation period.

    Results Creatinine levels were higher in male subjects who exercised periodically and were exercise conscious in comparison to those who did not exercise, and were higher in female subjects who exercised periodically in comparison to female subjects who did not exercise and who were not exercise conscious. Additionally, the serum creatinine level was negatively associated with the onset of IFG in both men (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99; p=0.008) and women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.97; p<0.001) after adjustment for variables previously reported to be risk factors for the onset of glucose intolerance and factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Conclusion A low creatinine level might be associated with the onset of IFG. Moreover, the fact that serum creatinine levels increase with exercise might demonstrate the importance of exercise therapy.

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  • Kentaro Sakashita, Kengo Murata, Yukiko Takahashi, Miake Yamamoto, Kan ...
    Article ID: 0813-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The standard anti-tuberculosis (TB) regimen occasionally causes acute kidney injury (AKI). The major etiology is rifampicin-induced acute interstitial nephritis. However, the standard management of AKI induced by anti-TB drugs has yet to be established.

    Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients with TB who developed AKI after starting standard anti-TB treatment between 2006 and 2016 at a single TB center. The clinical characteristics and the management are described.

    Results Among 1,430 patients with active TB, 15 (1.01%) developed AKI. The mean age (standard deviation) was 61 years (18). The median (interquartile range) time to AKI development was 45 days (21-54 days). The median serum creatinine level before anti-TB treatment was 0.7 mg/dL (0.5-1.4 mg/dL), whereas the median peak serum creatinine level after AKI onset was 4.0 mg/dL (3.08-5.12 mg/dL). Five patients (33.3%) were pathologically confirmed as having acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and 7 patients (46.7%) had a clinical diagnosis of the disease. All anti-TB drugs were stopped, and steroids were administered to 5 (100%) patients with pathologically confirmed AIN and 3 (42.8%) patients with clinically diagnosed AIN. The renal function was normalized in 12 patients (80.0%) after restarting anti-TB treatment without rifampicin (n=12) or isoniazid (n=1). Two patients died due to severe renal failure after restarting rifampicin.

    Conclusion Rifampicin is the leading cause of AKI. Levofloxacin may be an alternative to rifampicin thanks to its safety and potency. Restarting anti-TB treatment without rifampicin and short-term steroid administration may be a feasible management for AKI.

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  • Shigenori Nakamura, Masatoshi Ishimori, Noriyoshi Yamakita
    Article ID: 0891-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objective The association of primary aldosteronism (PA) with thyroid disease has already been suggested. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of PA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PC) and to characterize such PC patients with PA

    Patients and Methods We examined the presence of PA in 81 consecutive patients with PC, whose random sitting blood pressure (BP) was ≥140/90 mmHg in the office (n= 68), who had an incidental adrenal tumor or adrenal enlargement (n=9), or who showed hypokalemia (n=4). Thirty-one of these 81 patients had been treated with anti-hypertensive drugs. The plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were first measured before operation in 16 patients and after operation in 65 patients. PA was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the Japan Endocrine Society.

    Results Forty patients with PC with a random PAC/PRA ratio of over 200 were subjected to a further study (12 of these patients had been treated with anti-hypertensive drugs). Ultimately, 15 patients with PC were diagnosed with PA. Adrenal venous sampling was done in 9 out of 15 patients with PC associated with PA. No patients were diagnosed as having unilateral lesions. Among the 15 patients, white -coat hypertension was observed in 5 patients, and normotension was observed in 1 patient.

    Conclusion These findings suggest that the prevalence of PA may be high among patients with PC. An active examination is needed to detect PA, as its signs and symptoms may be mild in patients with PC associated with hypertension.

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  • Ryuya Edahiro, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Saeko Nakatsubo, Yuki Hosono, Nobuhiko ...
    Article ID: 0929-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is an uncommon diffuse lung disease characterized by metaplastic bone formation in the lung parenchyma and is rarely diagnosed in life. While DPO usually occurs as a secondary disease, idiopathic cases are extremely rare. We describe three cases of idiopathic DPO, two of which were definitively diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy. One case was observed in a 43-year-old man with a history of recurrent pneumothorax who developed pneumothorax after the surgical biopsy. Few reports have described cases of DPO with recurrent pneumothorax; however, pneumothorax should be considered as a potential complication when such patients are encountered.

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  • Saori Yamamoto, Tasuku Nagasawa, Koichiro Sugimura, Atuhiro Kanno, Shu ...
    Article ID: 0959-18
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2018
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-GAL A). We herein report 10 cases of AFD in 5 families (3 men and 7 women) that were found to have a specific common mutation in R301Q (G-to-A transition in exon 6 [codon 301] resulting in the replacement of a glutamine with an arginine residue). We evaluated their clinical characteristics, residual enzymatic activity, and plasma concentrations of globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). Although all 10 cases had cardiac and renal manifestations in common, their clinical manifestations were markedly divergent despite the same genetic abnormality.

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