2010 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 447-451
This report describes a patient with extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without involving bone marrow. A 57-year-old man was diagnosed as having acute monoblastic leukemia with t(9;11)(p22;q23) and trisomy 8. Ten months after achieving complete response (CR) with chemotherapy, masses developed in his left forearm and in the back of his thigh, preceded by enigmatic peripheral neurological symptoms. Aspiration from the forearm showed leukemic relapse, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the majority of the cells had 11q23 anomaly and tetrasomy 8. Bone marrow or meningeal relapse was not observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clonal evolution associated with the development of myeloid sarcoma as a relapse in AML.