2018 Volume 57 Issue 20 Pages 2929-2935
Objective To clarify the associations between serum omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods and Materials Data from 225 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally analyzed. The serum levels of n-6 PUFAs [dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] and n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) were measured, and the estimated Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) activity was calculated based on the AA to DGLA ratio. The associations between the composition of PUFAs and obesity-related parameters, including the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alanine amino transferase (ALT) level, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body fat percentage, as measured by a bioelectrical impedance analysis, were analyzed.
Results Among the PUFAs, the DGLA level had the strongest correlations with BMI (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), ALT level (p<0.001), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), and body fat percentage (p<0.01). AA was positively correlated and D5D was negatively correlated with several obesity-related parameters, while n-3 PUFAs did not have a constant correlation. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the DGLA level was an independent determinant for HOMA-IR (β=0.195, p=0.0066) after adjusting for sex, age, BMI, and the ALT, triglyceride, and HbA1c levels.
Conclusion A high serum DGLA level was associated with obesity, body fat accumulation, a high ALT level, and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. The measurement of the serum PUFA levels may be useful for evaluating metabolic abnormalities and estimating the dietary habits of patients.