2023 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 43-50
Autoinflammatory diseases are systemic disorders caused by genetic or acquired abnormalities in certain signaling pathways of the innate immune system. Dysregulated activation of the inflammasome, i.e. molecular platforms responsible for the activation of caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1β, causes autoinflammation. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the most common genetic autoinflammatory disease, is characterized by a periodic fever and serositis. The complex and heterogeneous genetic background of Japanese FMF patients, accompanied by potential overlap with other rheumatic diseases, suggests crosstalk between genetic and environmental factors. Recently, FMF has been recognized as being part of a spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes named pyrin-associated autoinflammatory diseases. The discovery of a new monogenic autoinflammatory disease, A20 haploinsufficiency, may provide novel insights into early-onset Behçet's-like diseases. In contrast, adult-onset Still's disease and Schnitzler's syndrome are acquired autoinflammatory diseases without a monogenic abnormality. Although the concept of autoinflammatory diseases originally applied to monogenic hereditary recurrent fevers, it has been expanded to include non-genetic complex autoinflammatory diseases. Information concerning monogenic autoinflammatory diseases may prove useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying non-genetic autoinflammatory diseases.