2024 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 1-10
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a decline in esophageal clearance and anti-reflux barrier mechanisms. Mucosal injury is caused by a combination of gastric juice directly damaging the esophageal mucosa and the immune and inflammatory mechanism in which inflammatory cytokines released from the esophageal mucosal epithelium cause neutrophil migration, triggering inflammation. Gastric secretion inhibitors are the first-line treatment for GERD, but they can be combined with prokinetic agents and Chinese herbal remedies. However, pharmacotherapy cannot improve anatomical problems or prevent physical causes of GERD, such as reflux of non-acidic contents. Therefore, surgery can be warranted, depending on the pathology. Intraluminal endoscopic therapy, which is both less invasive and more effective than surgery, was recently developed and applied in Europe and the United States. In Japan, intraluminal endoscopic therapies, such as anti-reflux mucosectomy, anti-reflux mucosal ablation, and endoscopic submucosal dissection, for GERD have been independently developed.