Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Online ISSN : 2186-361X
Print ISSN : 2186-3644
ISSN-L : 2186-3644
Systematic review of phenotypes and genotypes of patients with gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) (related to TTC7A)
Amelie BusolinFrederic VelyGilles Eymard-DuvernayVincent BarlogisAlexandre Fabre
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JOURNAL FREE ACCESS Advance online publication

Article ID: 2023.01109

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Abstract

The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of the morbidity and mortality observed in published patients with gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) related to TTC7A abnormalities. This included phenotypic, genotypic, and therapeutic aspects. Twenty-seven articles were included, which represented a total of 83 patients. Mortality was of 65.8% of the cases with a mean death at 11.8 months. The mortality rate was 197.1 per 1,000 patients-years, which is significantly higher than other enteropathy types caused by defects in epithelial trafficking and polarity (such as MOY5B, STX3, EPCAM, SPINT2, TTC37 and SKIV2L). Prematurity was also significant, with an average gestational age of 34.8 weeks. Antenatal signs were observed in 30 patients, including 14 cases of hydramnios. Three distinct phenotypic associations were identified: immune deficiency and multiple intestinal atresia without enteropathy (ID/MI), immune deficiency and enteropathy without atresia (ID/E), and immune deficiency with multiple intestinal atresia and enteropathy (ID/MIA/E). The mortality rates for these groups were 91.6%, 47.3% and 55.5%, respectively (p = 0.03), at earlier age of mortality for the ID/MIA phenotype and a later one for the ID/E phenotype. ELA syndrome (Enteropathy, Lymphopenia and Alopecia) was only observed in the ID/E group. Among the three genotypes (double variant Nonsense NS/NS, variant Missense/Nonsense MS/NS, double variant Missense MS/MS), NS/NS was significantly associated with the ID/MIA phenotype (77.8%), while MS/MS was associated with the ID/E phenotype (73.7%). Few therapies have been shown to be effective in treating enteropathy, particularly immunosuppressive therapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplants. The use of Leflunomide in one patient did not yield successful treatment outcomes. In conclusion, we confirm association between mortality and phenotype, which is itself linked to genotype.

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