2007 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-15
Models of microstructure evolution in steels are reviewed. The emphasis of the review is on low carbon sheet steels both hot-rolled and cold-rolled and annealed. First the state-of-the-art on industrial microstructure process models is presented. The individual model concepts for grain growth, recrystallization, precipitation and phase transformations are briefly discussed. The development from empirically-based models to physically-based models is identified as a key issue to have increased predictive capabilities for these models over a wider range of steel grades and operational conditions. The challenges in the development of the next generation of models are delineated. In particular, new aspects of microstructure evolution associated with novel processing routes and advanced high strength steels are evaluated. Further, the majority of the currently employed models are on the macro-scale but future microstructure models will increasingly be meso-scale models that predict actual microstructures rather than a number of average parameters (e.g. grain size, fraction transformed) to describe microstructure evolution.