1992 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 196-202
Transient analysis of the temperature and velocity distributions of steel during ladle standing and draining has been conducted using a mathematical model based on the PHOENICS numerical package. Parameters investigated were stand time, average steel cooling rate, drainage rate and ladle geometry. Stratification was seen to develop due to natural convection, and the rate of stratification was found to be linearly dependent on the average steel cooling rate, independent of ladle geometry. Qualitative relationships were found between the parameters and the teeming temperature during draining. Plant trials showed good agreement between simulated and actual teeming temperatures.