Practical English Studies
Online ISSN : 1884-4413
Print ISSN : 1883-230X
ISSN-L : 1883-230X
[title in Japanese]
[in Japanese]
Author information

2009 Volume 2009 Issue 15 Pages 29-38


   A discussion of results and a conclusion in a research article each offer detailed information about findings of the study and their importance. A discussion of results provides convincing data in paragraphs with a subheading of “Results” that support laws, theories or principles, and it explains the results in paragraphs with a subheading of “Discussion.” A conclusion, usually shown in paragraphs with a subheading of “Conclusion,” presents the summary of results and the applicability and influence of the research. Many articles in Nature, however, have no paragraphs with a subheading of “Conclusion” because a discussion of results in such articles includes the content of a conclusion in paragraphs with a subheading of “Discussion.” In producing the text, the selection of verbs, especially predicatives, and of their forms in the tense, aspect, mood and voice greatly determine the effectiveness of the sentences. The verbs giving results are most effective in the simple past or sometimes in the present perfect, but those giving universally acknowledged truths should be in the simple present. Modal verbs can also be used. May, could, can and might are often used to show lower possibility, and will is used in the sentence mentioning the future study.

Information related to the author
© 2009 Japan Association for Practical English
Previous article Next article