Journal of School Mental Health
Online ISSN : 2433-1937
Print ISSN : 1344-5944
Original Article: Practical Study
Examining the Effects and the Efficacy of a Training Program Aimed at Improving Junior-High School Students’ Capacity for Self-Expression
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2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 160-169



This study examines the effects and the efficacy of a training program aimed at improving junior-high school students’ capacity for self-expression. The training program was developed by the researcher for the purpose of this study.


The training program was based on the Finland method adopted in Finland to enhance the ability to express. The program was conducted for a total of five times with Grade 3 junior-high school students as participants. The effects and the efficacy of the program were examined by analyzing the changes in the students’ Picture-Frustration study score and the descriptive responses they were required to provide in the worksheet used in the program. The students were divided into three groups on the basis of the homeroom teacher’s assessment of the students’ capacity for self-expression. One student from each group was chosen to examine the effects and the efficacy of the training program.


The three students’ scores for “Ego-Defense” and “Need-Persistence” improved as a result of the training and their scores also edged closer to the average score for children at those ages. An analysis of the worksheets reveals that changes among students from the high and low groups were negligible, whereas students from the moderate group displayed remarkable changes.


The training produced different results and changes among the students. However, changes were noted among all students in terms of the ability to express their thoughts and the ability to balance reactions in Ego- and Superego-Blocking situations. In addition, students in the moderate group displayed their inclination to make conscious attempts to solve problems rather than reacting to the problems immediately. Therefore, it can be said that the training program enabled the students to learn to express their ideas and approach problems in a relaxed manner.

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© 2017 The Japan Association for School Mental Health
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