Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Online ISSN : 1880-3873
Print ISSN : 1340-3478
ISSN-L : 1340-3478
Original Article
A Novel Blood Pressure-independent Arterial Wall Stiffness Parameter; Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI)
Kohji ShiraiJunji UtinoKuniaki OtsukaMasanobu Takata
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2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 101-107


To measure the stiffness of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery noninvasively, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) which is independent of blood pressure was developed. The formula for measuring this index is;
    CAVI=a{(2ρ/ΔP) × ln(Ps/Pd)PWV2} + b
where, Ps and Pd are systolic and diastolic blood pressures respectively, PWV is pulse wave velocity between the heart and ankle, ΔP is Ps − Pd, ρ is blood density, and a and b are constants. This equation was derived from Bramwell-Hill’s equation1), and stiffness parameter2).
To elucidate the clinical utility of CAVI, the reproducibility and dependence on blood pressure were studied using VaSera (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd.). Furthermore, CAVI in hemodialysis patients with or without atherosclerotic diseases was measured.
The average coefficient of variation for five measurements among 22 persons was 3.8%. In hemodialysis patients (n = 482), CAVI was correlated weakly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.175, 0.006), while brachial-ankle PWV was correlated strongly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.463, 0.335). CAVI in hemodialysis patients without signs of atherosclerotic diseases (NA) was 8.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD). That in patients receiving percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 8.8 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). CAVI in patients with ischemic change in their electrocardiogram (ECG) was 8.5 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). That in patients with diabetes mellitus was 8.5 ± 0.3 (p < 0.002 vs. NA). CAVI in the patients with all three complications was 8.9 ± 0.35 (p < 0.001 vs. NA). These results suggested that CAVI could reflect arteriosclerosis of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery quantitatively.

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