Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Online ISSN : 1880-3873
Print ISSN : 1340-3478
ISSN-L : 1340-3478
Volume 13 , Issue 2
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
Review
  • Hironori Nakagami, Ryuichi Morishita, Kazuhisa Maeda, Yasushi Kikuchi, ...
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 77-81
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adult stem cells hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration, and the delivery of autologous progenitor cells into ischemic tissue is emerging as a novel therapeutic option. We and others have recently demonstrated the potential impact of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) on regenerative cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The main benefit of ADSC is that they can be easily harvested from patients by a simple, minimally invasive method and also easily cultured. Cultured ADSC can be induced to differentiate into not only adipocytes, but also bone, neurons or endothelial cells in certain conditions. Interestingly, they secrete a number of angiogenesis-related cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which might be suitable for regenerative cell therapy for ischemic diseases. In the ischemic mouse hindlimb, the angiogenic score was improved in the ADSC-treated group. Moreover, recent reports demonstrated that these ADSC can also be induced to differentiate into cardiac myocytes. These adipose tissue-derived cells have potential in angiogenic cell therapy for ischemic disease, and might be applied for regenerative cell therapy instead of bone marrow cells in the near future.
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Original Article
  • Meihua Piao, Osamu Tokunaga
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 82-89
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To date, the glycoprotein endoglin and its receptor complex, formed between TGFβ and TGFβ R-2, have been studied in tumor angiogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression profile of endoglin and its receptor complex in human atherosclerotic lesions, and compare it to that in non-atherosclerotic tissues. Twenty-six atherosclerotic lesions and twenty-six non-atherosclerotic aortic tissues were collected from thirty-six autopsy cases. Indirect immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the presence of endoglin, TGFβ-1, and TGFβ R-2 proteins in aortic tissues. Endoglin expression was observed in smooth muscle cells (SMC), macrophages and endothelial cells of aortic atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of TGFβ-1 and TGFβ R-2 were increased in the intimal matrices, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. The expression levels of endoglin, TGFβ-1, and TGFβ R-2 were higher in atherosclerotic lesions than in non-atherosclerotic aortic tissues (p < 0.0001), and there was a correlation among the expression of endoglin, TGFβ-1, and TGFβ R-2 in atherosclerotic aortic lesions (p < 0.001). Endoglin or its receptor complex may participate in the atherogenesis.
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  • Isaac K. Quaye, Grace Ababio, Albert G. Amoah
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 90-94
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have investigated the role of haptoglobin gene polymorphisms in 129 type 2 diabetic patients and 87 non-diabetic subjects, classified by the ADA criteria, in Ghana. The diabetic subjects were recruited consecutively from the National Diabetic Management and Research Center of the University of Ghana Medical School, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana and were categorized by their haptoglobin phenotypes. The haptoglobin 2 allele was determined to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Ghana (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.8-21.2; P = .0.001) while the Hp1 allele appeared protective (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.31-1.0; P = .06). The deleterious role of the Hp2 allele was further evidenced by the reduced risk associated with Hp2-1M mutant heterozygotes, who produce less Hp2 protein than the normal Hp2-1 heterozygote. (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27-1.0; P = 0.06). The subjects with the homozygous Hp2 allele were also hypertensive and overweight. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL between diabetic subjects with different haptoglobin phenotypes.
    We conclude that hypertensive and overweight individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype in Ghana are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and may require a more aggressive management.
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  • Tatsuro Takano, Tadashi Yamakawa, Mayumi Takahashi, Mari Kimura, Atsus ...
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 95-100
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Atorvastatin is frequently administered for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a marked deterioration of glycemic control has been reported in some patients treated with atorvastatin. No study has been done to determine whether atorvastatin adversely affects glycemic control. In this study, we retrospectively compared an atorvastatin-treated group (Group A, n = 76) with a pravastatin-treated group (Group P, n = 78) to examine the effects of the 2 statins on glycemic control from the onset of administration to 3 months thereafter. No change occurred in the antidiabetic drug dose in 62 patients of Group A and 68 patients of Group P. In those patients, arbitrary blood glucose levels increased from 147 ± 50 (mean ± SD) mg/dL to 177 ± 70 mg/dL in Group A and from 140 ± 38 mg/dL to 141 ± 32 mg/dL in Group P. HbA1c increased from 6.8 ± 0.9% to 7.2 ± 1.1% in Group A and from 6.9 ± 0.9% to 6.9 ± 1.0% in Group P. The increase was significant only in Group A, and the extent of the increase was also significantly greater in Group A. These results suggest a predisposition to a deterioration of glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients treated with atorvastatin.
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  • Kohji Shirai, Junji Utino, Kuniaki Otsuka, Masanobu Takata
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 101-107
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To measure the stiffness of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery noninvasively, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) which is independent of blood pressure was developed. The formula for measuring this index is;
        CAVI=a{(2ρ/ΔP) × ln(Ps/Pd)PWV2} + b
    where, Ps and Pd are systolic and diastolic blood pressures respectively, PWV is pulse wave velocity between the heart and ankle, ΔP is Ps − Pd, ρ is blood density, and a and b are constants. This equation was derived from Bramwell-Hill’s equation1), and stiffness parameter2).
    To elucidate the clinical utility of CAVI, the reproducibility and dependence on blood pressure were studied using VaSera (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd.). Furthermore, CAVI in hemodialysis patients with or without atherosclerotic diseases was measured.
    The average coefficient of variation for five measurements among 22 persons was 3.8%. In hemodialysis patients (n = 482), CAVI was correlated weakly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.175, 0.006), while brachial-ankle PWV was correlated strongly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.463, 0.335). CAVI in hemodialysis patients without signs of atherosclerotic diseases (NA) was 8.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD). That in patients receiving percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 8.8 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). CAVI in patients with ischemic change in their electrocardiogram (ECG) was 8.5 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). That in patients with diabetes mellitus was 8.5 ± 0.3 (p < 0.002 vs. NA). CAVI in the patients with all three complications was 8.9 ± 0.35 (p < 0.001 vs. NA). These results suggested that CAVI could reflect arteriosclerosis of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery quantitatively.
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  • Yuji Yoshitomi, Toshikazu Ishii, Masashi Kaneki, Takashi Tsujibayashi, ...
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 108-113
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Pitavastatin has a potent cholesterol-lowering action. The clinical efficacy and safety of a low dose, 1 mg, of pitavastatin were examined. Methods: The effect of 12 weeks’ treatment with pitavastatin 1 mg in an open label, non-randomized trial involving 137 patients with hypercholesterolemia as compared with treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg. Results: Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels at baseline did not differ between the two groups. At follow-up, there were no significant differences in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels between the groups. The TG levels at follow-up were higher in the pitavastatin group than atorvastatin group (p < 0.01). In patients with hyperlipidemia type IIa, TG levels at follow-up were lower in the atorvastatin subgroup (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in TG levels at follow-up between the two subgroups in patients with hyperlipidemia type IIb. Conclusion: Pitavastatin 1 mg daily was safe and efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol levels as compared with atorvastatin 10 mg daily. Further randomized comparative studies are needed to clarify the effect of a low dose of pitavastatin.
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  • Sawako Hatsuda, Tetsuo Shoji, Kayo Shinohara, Eiji Kimoto, Katsuhito M ...
    2006 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 114-121
    Published: 2006
    Released: May 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Arterial stiffness is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and diabetes preferentially affects arterial stiffness of the central (elastic, capacitive) over peripheral (muscular, conduit) arteries. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness of the central artery may be more closely associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) than stiffness of peripheral arteries in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects were 595 type 2 diabetes patients including 70 with IHD. Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the heart-carotid, heart-femoral, heart-brachial, and femoral-ankle regions. The PWV values of the four segments correlated with each other in patients without IHD. However, the correlations were less impressive in those with IHD, suggesting unequal stiffening of regional arteries in IHD. As compared with patients without IHD, the IHD group showed significantly higher PWV values of the four arterial segments, particularly of the heart-femoral region. The presence of IHD was significantly associated with higher heart-femoral PWV, and this association remained significant and independent of other factors in a multiple logistic regression analysis. Pulse pressure was more strongly correlated with PWV of the heart-femoral than other arterial regions. Thus, diabetic patients with IHD have increased stiffness of arteries, particularly of the aorta, supporting the concept that central arterial stiffness plays an important role in the development of IHD.
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