2016 年 23 巻 10 号 p. 1188-1200
Aims: Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug primarily used to treat or prevent acute ischemic stroke (IS) or myocardial infarction (MI). This prodrug requires biotransformation to an active metabolite by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could affect the efficiency of such biotransformation.
Methods: A total of 375 consecutive IS patients were genotyped for eight CYP SNPs using mass spectrometry. Platelet aggregation activity was measured before and after the 7–10 day treatment. Gene–gene interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) analysis. All patients received clopidogrel therapy and were followed up for six months. Primary outcomes were evaluated as a composite of recurrent ischemic stroke (RIS), MI, and death. The secondary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).
Results: Clopidogrel resistance occurred in 153 patients (40.8%). The frequency of CYP3A5 (rs776746) GG/AG and CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) AA/AG genotypes was significantly higher in clopidogrel-resistant patients than in sensitive patients. There was a significant gene–gene interaction between CYP3A5 (rs776746) and CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285). CYP2C19*2 AA and its interaction with CYP3A5 GG were independent predictors of clopidogrel resistance and affected the activity of platelet aggregation. Diabetes mellitus, CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), clopidogrel resistance, and the interaction of CYP2C19*2 with CYP3A5 were all independent risk factors for the primary outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. Clopidogrel-resistant patients were more likely to have poor outcomes (mRS ＞2 points) compared with clopidogrel-sensitive patients.
Conclusion: CYP SNPs and their interactions are associated with drug resistance and outcomes in acute IS patients.