Relationships between four elements of cognitive social capital (i.e., law-abiding spirit, normative consciousness, attitude toward contracts, and trust) were examined as part of the “East Asia Value Survey” conducted by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics. To avoid aggregation bias, micro-data analysis, such as multiple group structural equation modeling with categorical variables, was conducted.
A significantly positive relationship between normative consciousness and trust was found for China; however, the relationship between law-abiding spirit and trust was nonsignificant. Additionally, in China, token acknowledgement affected responses to law-abiding-spirit questions but did not affect responses related to normative consciousness.
Attitude toward contracts and trust had a positive relationship in Japan and China but a negative relationship in Taiwan and Singapore. This research also showed that the way demographic variables affect each element of social capital varies according to countries/areas.