Social capital, both at an individual and a community level, has received attention as a determinant of health behavior. In this study the authors analyzed regional differences of health behaviors and social capital, and their relationship at an individual level, focusing on the M-region in Aichi Prefecture. The result revealed that the elderly in the M-region tended to exhibit better health behaviors and richer social capital. Although some of the social capital indices showed significant associations with the health behaviors at an individual level, this might only explain a part of the differences we observed in health behaviors between the M-region and the other region. We then discussed the role of social capital at a community level to explain the better health behaviors that occur in the M-region, and proposed the importance of sha-en (social relations with co-workers or business partners), as a more fundamental local condition for ‘a healthy neighborhood’.