In this study, we analyzed factors affecting children’s academic achievement with the data of PISA2012 and PISA2015. We set up four hypotheses and verified them. Hy- pothesis 1 is “children’s attributes influence their motivation.” Hypothesis 2 is “children’s attributes and their motivation influence their academic achievement.” Hypothesis 3 is “maternal employment has a negative effect on children’s motivation.” Hypothesis 4 is “children’s attributes influence the parent-child relationship, and the parent-child rela- tionship has a positive effect on children’s motivation and their academic achievement.” We clarified hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 2 using graphical modeling. We verified hy- pothesis 3 utilizing a stratified analysis using a propensity score and clarified it in terms of Japanese girls. However, in sub-groups where in mothers tend to work more, mater- nal employment brings about a positive effect on their children’s motivation. Results show that relieving the gap in the children’s academic achievement may be possible by improving parent-child relationships and children’s motivation.