1977 年 25 巻 p. 78-90
Love affairs play an important role in the plots of Roman comedy, and that is one of the reasons when the origin of the Latin love elegy is argued, the reference to the amatory expressions of Plautus and Terence is not to be dismissed. Thispaper seeks to estimate the nuances of osculum and savium in Plautus as one of these amatory expressions, which I expect to lead to the comparative study of Roman comedy and the Latin love elegy in terms of their vocabulary and expression. Servius affords a commentary on Verg. Aen. I. 256 to the effect that osculum isof religio, savium of voluptas. This definition is most appropriate to the very passage, it is true, but cannot be valid for all the oscula(five times)in Vergil. Donatus(ad Ter. Eun. 456), on the other hand, gives another definition of the wordsfor kiss, in which osculum, basium, and savium are all mentioned, each of them, given its own separate meaning. But, as is well known, basium was not knwon in Rome at the time of Plautus and Terence, and is generally assumed to have been introduced by Catullus from Celtic. Therefore we cannot apply Donatus' definition to Plautus without reserve. The frequency of the words 'kiss' in Plautus is as follows: [table] The sheer number clearly shows that osculum and its derivatives are used more frequently than savium and its derivative, and that savium is not the principal word for kiss in Plautus, as some scholars think it is. Donatus says in his commentary that osculum is of officium, and we can apply it to such kisses as are found in Amph. 571, 800, where osculum is used with sahitare and manum prehendere. Similar greeting kisses are also found in Epid. 571-4. Savium, however, is not used in such a way as to suggest that it is of officium at all. The kisses between parent and child(Epid., Rud., Stick.) or between husband and wife(Ampk., Asin.) are all described with osculum and its derivative, which are not of voluptas or of libido-amor, but of officium or of pudicus affectus. In contrast to it, all savium are used exclusively between amatores. We have also several passages(e.g. Asin. 222-5; Cure. 51-6)which indicate that osculum and its derivatives are in a striking contrast to savium. The derivative osculari, however, obscures such a distinction in some cases (e.g. Mil. Gl.) , where it is used for kisses between amatores. Later history of the word for kiss in the poetic vocabulary is that of the exclusion of savium from it, with the exception of Catullus. Such a tendency even begins in Terence, who uses 'kiss' quite rarely(only twice). Catullus uses all osculum, basium, savium and their derivatives, and their distribution to the three groups testifies savium belongs to the vocabulary of epigrams. All the words for kiss in Tibullus, Propertius and Ovid are oscula(p1.) and osculor(Prop. IV. 3. 30), except only one savium(Prop. II. 29B. 29). Every kind of kiss, whether it is of officium or of libido-amor, is described with oscula by the Latin love elegists. Thus we can conclude that there was a clear distinction between osculum and savium in Plautus, but that as there was not known the verb saviari at the time of Plautus and Terence, osculari was used in some cases for its substitute. In the Latin love elegy savium and basium were excluded, because they were not regarded as so poetic, nor so appropriate as to enhance the Latin love elegy to a higher rank, but as colloquial and vulgar.