1992 Volume 41 Issue 8 Pages 557-569
The aspects of surface analytical techniques by detecting and analysing energy spectrum of outcoming photons from sample surface concerned were summarised. γ-ray, X-ray and light emission spectrometry induced by the ions bombardment offers very unique surface analysis methods. X-ray spectrometry by the irradiation of sample surface with electron beam, X-ray beam or ion beam can serve not only as an elemental analytical techniques but as methods, which give the information on the lateral distribution of elements and the physicochemical state of elements. Fourier transformation of near edge Kossel structure and far edge Kronig structure of X-ray absorption spectrum resulted the radial function or the distance distribution among atoms. X-ray fluorescent spectrometry and diffractometry of the small glancing angle scattering by the use of synchrotron radiation increases the surface sensitivity considerably. Ion, electron and photon induced luminescence are utilized widely for the evaluation of electronical characteristics of semiconductor or phosphor films. Varieties of photothermal and photo-acoustic processes are applied to the surface analyses of both inorganic and organic advanced materials.
High sensitivity of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer realized many surface and micro-analytical techniques especially for organic thin films. The newly exploited Fourier transform Raman spectrometer will prove to be very powerful tool of surface analyses even with or without the combination of surface enhanced Raman spectrometry, Raman microprobe analyser. Electron spin resonance absorption and magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry are proving themselves to be essential methods for the chemical state analyses of compounds adsorbed or modified as functional substrances onto the surface.