BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of food intake and estimated nutrient intake in the JACC study cohort.
METHODS: The subjects were 46,465 men and 64,327 women aged 40-79 years who responded to the self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the dietary intake of major nutrients by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food with each portion size, estimated from a validation study.
RESULTS: Women reported to more likely consume vegetables, seaweed, fruits, sweets, oolong-tea, western-style-breakfast, and less likely to consume rice and miso-soup than men. Women reported less preference of salty foods and fatty foods than men. Compared with men, women had higher mean intakes of carotene and vitamin C, and lower intake of total energy, carbohydrate and sodium. The frequency of consumption of beef, chicken, dairy products, fresh fish, fish products, rice, and miso-soup increased with age in men, and that of vegetables, seaweed, beans, tofu, fruits, sweets, and green-tea increased with age in both sexes. Men aged 40-49years had the lowest mean intake levels of crude fiber, calcium, iron, retinol, carotene, and vitamins A, C, and E. Women aged 40-49years had the lowest mean intake levels of crude fiber, iron, and vitamins C. Women aged 70-79years had the lowest mean intake levels of calcium, retinol, and vitamins A.
CONCLUSIONS: Women had a more westernized dietary pattern than men. Elderly men had a mixture of unhealthy and healthy dietary patterns while elderly women generally had a healthier dietary pattern compared with younger persons.
J Epidemiol 2005; 15: S24-S42.
2005 by Japan Epidemiological Association