Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 77 articles from Advance online publication
  • Xiuting Mo, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Naoko Arata, Tippaw ...
    Article ID: JE20190338
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: This study aims to find evidence of the cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening and assess the quality of current economic evaluations which have shown different conclusions with a variation in screening methods, data sources, outcome indicators, and implementation in diverse organizational contexts.

    Search Strategy: Embase, Medline, Web of Science, HTA, and NHSEED databases were searched till June 2019.

    Selection Criteria: Studies on economic evaluation reporting both cost and health outcomes of GDM screening programs in English language.

    Data Collection and Analysis: The quality of the studies was assessed using Drummond’s checklist. The general characteristics, main assumptions, and results of the economic evaluations were summarized.

    Main Results: Our search yielded ten eligible economic evaluations with different screening strategies comparison in different settings and perspectives. The selected papers scored 81% (68%–97%) on the items in Drummond’s checklist on average. In general, a screening program is cost-effective (C-E) or even dominant over no screening. The 1-step screening, with more cases detected, is more likely to be C-E than the 2-step screening. Universal screening is more likely to be C-E than screening targeting the high-risk population. Parameters affecting cost-effectiveness include: diagnosis criteria, epidemiological characteristics of the population, efficacy of screening and treatment, and costs.

    Conclusions: Most studies found GDM screening to be cost-effective, though uncertainties remain due to many factors. The quality assessment identified weaknesses in the economic evaluations in terms of integrating existing data, measuring costs and consequences, analyzing perspectives, and adjusting for uncertainties.

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  • Takashi OSHIO
    Article ID: JE20200071
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: The “retired husband syndrome” refers to the negative impact of the husband’s retirement on the wife’s health. This study provided new insights by examining whether and to what extent the wife’s social participation, interactions with her husband, and job status prior to her husband’s retirement affected the evolution of her mental health after her husband’s retirement.

    Methods: We collected data from a 12-wave nationwide panel survey conducted from 2005 to 2016, starting with individuals aged 50–59 years. Focusing on 3,794 female respondents whose husbands retired during the survey period, we applied random-effects linear regression models to investigate the evolution of their mental health as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) score (range: 0–24; M: 3.41 SD: 4.11) during the five years after their husbands’ retirement.

    Results: On average, the wife’s K6 score rose by 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08–0.28), 0.18 (95% CI: 0.03–0.34), and 0.19 (95% CI: –0.02–0.43) in the first three years, respectively, after the husband’s retirement, before declining toward the baseline level. However, the wife’s active social participation, intense interactions with her husband, and absence of paid employment before her husband’s retirement prevented her mental health from deteriorating.

    Conclusion: The results suggest the limited relevance of the “retired husband syndrome” among middle-aged Japanese couples. The effects of a husband’s retirement on the wife’s mental health depended heavily on her prior behavior.

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  • Ayumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Murakami, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Sato ...
    Article ID: JE20200030
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Background: The disparity of overall diet quality by personal educational attainment has been a public issue. However, it remains unknown which food groups contribute to the disparity. This cross-sectional study assesses which food groups explain associations between education and overall diet quality in Japanese women.

    Methods: A total of 3788 middle-aged (mean: 47.7 years) and 2188 older women (mean: 74.4 years), who lived in 47 prefectures in Japan, provided data on their education (low, middle, and high) and dietary intakes from a diet history questionnaire. A diet quality score (possible score 0-70) was calculated based on seven food components. Mean diet quality scores with adjustment for lifestyle and neighborhood variables were estimated by education, and Dunnett’s multiple comparison was conducted. Additionally, mean scores of each food component were estimated by education and compared using the same manner.

    Results: After adjustment for lifestyle and neighborhood variables, mean diet quality score of high or middle education was higher than low education for both generations. Middle-aged women with high and middle education had higher scores of ‘milk’, ‘snacks, confection, and beverages’, ‘fruits’, and ‘vegetable dishes’ than those with low education. Older women with high and middle education had higher scores of ‘sodium from seasonings’ and ‘fruits’ than those with low education.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that positive associations between education and diet quality are explained by different food groups in middle-aged and older Japanese women, which are independent of lifestyle and neighborhood variables.

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  • Haruki Momma, Kiminori Kato, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawak ...
    Article ID: JE20200034
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Grip strength reflects systemic muscle strength and mass and is reportedly associated with various metabolic variables. However, its prognostic association with dyslipidemia is unknown. We examined the association of grip strength and other physical fitness markers with the incidence of dyslipidemia among Japanese adults.

    Methods: A total of 16,149 Japanese (6208 women) individuals aged 20–92 years who underwent a physical fitness test between April 2001 and March 2002 were included in this cohort study. Grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance with eyes closed, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time were evaluated at baseline. Dyslipidemia was annually determined based on fasting serum lipid profiles and self-reported dyslipidemia from April 2001 to March 2008.

    Results: During the follow-up period, 4458 (44.9%) men and 2461 (39.6%) women developed dyslipidemia. A higher relative grip strength (grip strength/body mass index) was associated with a lower incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with those for the first septile, the hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the seventh septile were 0.56 (0.50, 0.63) for men and 0.69 (0.58, 0.81) for women. Moreover, relative vertical jump (vertical jump strength/body mass index) was also inversely associated with the incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend < 0.001). There was no association between other physical fitness and dyslipidemia among both men and women.

    Conclusion: Relative grip strength and vertical jump may be useful risk markers of the incidence of dyslipidemia.

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  • Yudai Tamada, Kenji Takeuchi, Chikae Yamaguchi, Masashige Saito, Tetsu ...
    Article ID: JE20200051
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: While laughter is broadly recognized as a good medicine, a potential preventive effect of laughter on disability and death is still being debated. Accordingly, we investigated the association between the frequency of laughter and onset of functional disability and all-cause mortality among the older adults in Japan.

    Methods: The data for a 3-year follow-up cohort including 14,233 individuals (50.3% men) aged ≥ 65 years who could independently perform the activities of daily living and participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study were analyzed. The participants were classified into four categories according to their frequency of laughter (almost every day, 1–5 days/week, 1–3 days/month, and never or almost never). We estimated the risks of functional disability and all-cause mortality in each category using a Cox proportional hazards model.

    Results: During follow-up, 605 (4.3%) individuals developed functional disability, identified by new certification for the requirement of Long-Term Care Insurance, and 659 (4.6%) deaths were noted. After adjusting for the potential confounders, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of functional disability increased with a decrease in the frequency of laughter (p for trend = 0.04). The risk of functional disability was 1.42 times higher for individuals who laughed never or almost never than for those who laughed almost every day. No such association was observed with the risk of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.39).

    Conclusions: Low frequency of laughter is associated with increased risks of functional disability. Laughter may be an early predictor of functional disability later on in life.

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  • Kyueun Lee, Edward L Giovannucci, Jihye Kim
    Article ID: JE20190328
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The effect of smoking and sex on the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components has not been investigated.

    Methods: A total of 5,629 Korean adults aged 40–69 years without MetS were recruited at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed biennially and classified as light, moderate or heavy drinker. Smoking status was examined at baseline and categorized into non-smokers and current smokers. Risk of incident MetS and its components according to alcohol consumption was examined by smoking status and sex using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.

    Results: During a follow-up of 12 years, 2,336 participants (41.5%) developed MetS. In non-smokers, light or moderate alcohol drinkers had a lower risk of developing MetS, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-C compared with never drinkers. Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of incident elevated blood pressure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.06; P = 0.020) in men and abdominal obesity (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.06–3.27; P = 0.030) in women. However, in smokers, the inverse association of light or moderate alcohol consumption with hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity was not present, whereas a positive association between heavy alcohol consumption and hyperglycemia (HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.80; P = 0.014) was observed.

    Conclusions: Smoking status and sex strongly affects the association between long-term alcohol consumption and MetS and its components by the amount of alcohol consumed.

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  • Yukihiro Sato, Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuaki Saijo, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo ...
    Article ID: JE20190347
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Population impact of modifiable risk factors on orofacial clefts is still unknown. This study aimed to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate only (CP) in Japan.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. We estimated the PAFs of maternal alcohol consumption, psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 and ≥25 kg/m2), and non-use of a folic acid supplement during pregnancy for nonsyndromic CL±P and CP in infants.

    Results: A total of 94,174 pairs of pregnant women and their single babies were included. Among them, there were 146 nonsyndromic CL±P cases and 41 nonsyndromic CP cases. The combined adjusted PAF for CL±P of the modifiable risk factors excluding maternal alcohol consumption was 34.3%. Only maternal alcohol consumption was not associated with CL±P risk. The adjusted PAFs for CL±P of psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal BMI, and non-use of a folic acid supplement were 1.4% (95% confidence interval = -10.7, 15.1), 9.9% (-7.0, 26.9), 10.8% (-9.9, 30.3), 2.4% (-7.5, 14.0), and 15.1% (-17.8, 41.0), respectively. We could not obtain PAFs for CP due to the small sample size.

    Conclusions: We reported the population impact of the modifiable risk factors on CL±P, but not CP. This study might be useful in planning the primary prevention of CL±P.

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  • Ryota Sakurai, Hisashi Kawai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hunkyung Kim, Yutaka Wa ...
    Article ID: JE20190217
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Objectives: Eating alone is associated with an increased risk of depression symptoms. This association may be confounded by poor social networks. The present study aimed to determine the role of poor social networks in the association of eating alone with depression symptoms, focusing on cohabitation status.

    Methods: Seven hundred and ten community-dwelling older adults were categorised according to their eating style and social network size, evaluated by an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale, with poor social network size defined as the lowest quartile. Living arrangements and depression symptoms, detected by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, were also assessed.

    Results: A mixed-design two-way ANCOVA (eating style and social network size factors) for the depression scale score, adjusted by covariates, yielded significant effects of social network size and eating style without interaction. Greater depression scores were observed in eating alone and poor social network size. Analysis of participants living with others showed the same results. However, among older adults living alone, only a significant main effect of social network size was observed; poor social network size resulted in greater depression scores irrespective of eating style.

    Conclusions: Poor social network size, and not eating alone, was associated with greater depression symptoms among older adults living alone, whereas both factors may increase depression symptoms among older adults living with others. Poor social network size may show a stronger influence on depression than eating alone in older adults living alone; thus, social network size is an important health indicator.

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  • Yukitsugu Komazawa, Hiroshi Murayama, Noboru Harata, Kiyoshi Takami, G ...
    Article ID: JE20190248
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background:

    Previous studies have reported that financial strain has deleterious effects on healthy behaviors. Moreover, social support is expected to mitigate these effects but few studies have investigated the effects of exercise; thus, the investigation can deepen our understanding of the relationship between social support and physical activity/exercise. We examined the relationship between financial strain and frequency of exercise, and the role of social support in this relationship in old age.

    Method:

    Data came from a 19-year longitudinal study conducted between 1987 and 2006 of Japanese adults aged 60 or more with up to seven repeated observations. Frequency of exercise was assessed using a four-point scale. Financial strain was measured by the responses to three questions related to financial condition. This study considered both emotional and instrumental supports. Covariates included demographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and health condition.

    Results:

    The analysis included 3,911 participants. The results of a generalized estimation equation model showed that among females, greater financial strain in the previous wave was associated with reduced frequency of exercise (b = –0.018, 95% confidence interval: –0.032, –0.004), and that as financial strain increased, those who received more instrumental support engaged in less exercise than those who received less support (b = –0.009, 95% confidence interval: –0.017, –0.002). These relationships were not observed among males.

    Conclusion:

    This study provides evidence that financial strain is negatively correlated with frequency of exercise among older females. In addition, instrumental support is negatively correlated with frequency of exercise among females under financial strain.

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  • Nobuhiro Sato, Tasuku Matsuyama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Yasuo Hirose
    Article ID: JE20200068
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Although bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) plays an essential role in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cares, little is known about the bystander–patient relationship in the actual setting. This study aimed to assess the disparities in BCPR performed by a family member and that performed by a non-family member.

    Methods: This population-based observational study involved all adult patients with witnessed OHCAs of medical origin in Niigata City, Japan, between January 2012 and December 2016, according to the Utstein style. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the association between the witnessing person and the probability of providing BCPR. Next, among those who received BCPR, we sought to investigate the difference between BCPR performed by family and that performed by non-family members in terms of whether those who witnessed the arrests actually performed BCPR.

    Results: During the study period, 818 were eligible for this analysis, with 609 (74.4%) patients witnessed by family and 209 (25.6%) patients witnessed by non-family members. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that OHCA patients witnessed by family were less likely to receive BCPR compared to those witnessed by non-family members (260/609 [42.7%] versus 119/209 [56.9%], P=0.017). Among the witnessed patients for whom BCPR was performed, the proportion of BCPR actually performed by a family member was lower than that performed by a non-family member (242/260 [93.1%] versus 116/119 [97.5%], P=0.011).

    Conclusions: In this community-based observational study, we found that a witnessing family member is less likely to perform BCPR than a witnessing non-family member.

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  • Yuri Ito, Isao Miyashiro, Takashi Ishikawa, Kohei Akazawa, Keisuke Fuk ...
    Article ID: JE20190351
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background

    Although the incidence and mortality have decreased, gastric cancer (GC) is still a public health issue globally. An international study reported higher survival in Korea and Japan than other countries, including the US. We examined the determinant factors of the high survival in Japan, compared with the US.

    Methods

    We analysed data on 78,648 cases from the nationwide GC registration project, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA), from 2004-2007 and compared them with 16,722 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), a US population-based cancer registry data from 2004-2010. We estimated five-year relative survival and applied a multivariate excess hazard model to compare the two countries, considering the effect of number of lymph nodes (LNs) examined.

    Results

    Five-year relative survival in Japan was 81.0%, compared with 45.0% in the US. After controlling for confounding factors, we still observed significantly higher survival in Japan. Among N2 patients, a higher number of LNs examined showed better survival in both countries. Among N3 patients, the relationship between number of LNs examined and differences in survival between the two countries disappeared.

    Conclusion

    Although the wide differences in GC survival between Japan and US can be largely explained by differences in the stage at diagnosis, the number of LNs examined may also help to explain the gaps between two countries, which is related to stage migration.

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  • Jing Sun, Zhaoying Li, Yan Li, Dongfeng Zhang
    Article ID: JE20200003
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Epidemiological evidence on the relationships between different categories of vegetables and fruits and depressive symptoms is very limited and inconsistent, especially with no evidence from the general population. This study aimed to estimate their relationships among a large general population.

    Methods: The cross-sectional design was based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2014) and included 16925 adults. Dietary information was attained from two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Patient Health Questionnaire was applied for measuring depressive symptoms. The associations between vegetables and fruits intakes and depressive symptoms were appraised utilizing logistic regression and restricted cubic spline.

    Results: Compared with the lowest category, the most adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, CI) of depressive symptoms for the highest category of tomatoes and tomato mixtures were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.99), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.85) for dark-green, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53-0.84) for other vegetables, 0.48 (95% CI, 0.29-0.79) for berries, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.82) for total vegetables, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.57-0.86) for total fruits, and for the medium categories of bananas and dried fruits were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.41-0.95) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.19-0.81), respectively. After sensitivity analysis by further excluding subjects with co-morbid health conditions, these findings remained significant, except for bananas. An L-shaped relationship was observed between depressive symptoms and total vegetables, while the association was linear with total fruits.

    Conclusions: Intakes of tomatoes and tomato mixtures, dark-green, other vegetables, berries, dried fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits were inversely related to depressive symptoms among adults.

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  • Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Valentina Rosolen, Marika Mariuz, Elisa Piscianz ...
    Article ID: JE20190284
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background. The extent to which prenatal low-level mercury (Hg) exposure through maternal fish intake and heavy metals exposure affect children neurodevelopment is controversial and may appear in long term. In 2007 a prospective cohort, the Northern Adriatic Cohort II (NAC-II), was established to investigate the association between prenatal Hg exposure from maternal fish consumption and child neurodevelopment. 900 pregnant women were enrolled. 632 and 470 children underwent neurodevelopmental evaluation, respectively, at 18 and 40 months of age. The NAC-II cohort is a part of the Mediterranean cohort in “Public health impact of long-term, low-level, mixed element exposure in susceptible population strata” project.

    Methods. This protocol describes the follow-up assessment of the effects of prenatal low level Hg and other heavy metals exposure on the developing nervous system of the children born within the NAC-II and reached the age of 7 years. Child diet components are estimated through a Diet Diary. Child hair and urine are collected for determination of Hg level. In addition, levels of other potentially neurotoxic metals, namely Manganese, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Selenium are also measured in the same matrices.

    Discussion

    This protocol extends to the first years of schooling age the evaluation of the neurotoxicant effect of Mercury and of the other heavy metals on children’s neurodevelopment, adjusting for the potential confounders such as the lifestyles and the social economic status of children’s families. Longitudinal analysis of neurodevelopment, assessed in different ages (18, 40 months and 7 years), are performed.

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  • Silvano GALLUS, Alessandra LUGO, Xiaoqiu LIU, Panagiotis BEHRAKIS, Rob ...
    Article ID: JE20190344
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Population data on tobacco use and its determinants require continuous monitoring and careful inter-country comparison. We aimed to provide the most up-to-date estimates on tobacco smoking from a large cross-sectional survey, conducted in selected European countries.

    Methods: Within the TackSHS Project, a face-to-face survey on smoking was conducted in 2017-2018 in 12 countries: Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Spain, representing around 80% of the 432 million European Union (EU) adult population. In each country, a representative sample of around 1,000 subjects aged 15 years and older was interviewed, for a total of 11,902 participants.

    Results: Overall 25.9% of participants were current smokers (31.0% among men and 21.2% among women, p<0.001), while 16.5% were former smokers. Smoking prevalence ranged from 18.9% in Italy to 37.0% in Bulgaria. It decreased with increasing age (compared to <45, multivariable odds ratio, OR, for ≥65 years was 0.31; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.27-0.36), level of education (OR for low vs. high was 1.32; 95% CI: 1.17-1.48) and self-rated household economic level (OR for low vs. high was 2.05; 95% CI: 1.74-2.42). The same patterns were found in both sexes.

    Conclusions: These smoking prevalence estimates represent the most up-to-date evidence in Europe. From them it can be derived that there are more than 112 million current smokers in the EU-28. Lower socio-economic status is a major determinant of smoking habit in both sexes.

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  • Hiroyuki Ohbe, Tadahiro Goto, Ryuichi Yamazaki, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Mat ...
    Article ID: JE20200018
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: For patients with suicide attempts or self-harm, acute-care hospitals often function as the primary or sole point of contact with the healthcare system. However, little is known about patient characteristics or clinical trajectories of suicide attempts and self-harm episodes among those admitted to acute-care hospitals. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of suicide attempts and self-harm among patients admitted to acute-care hospitals and the clinical practices provided in these hospitals, using a nationwide inpatient database in Japan.

    Methods: Using data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database from June 2015 to March 2017, we identified patients with emergency admission for suicide attempts or self-harm. We did not include patients with elective admission to psychiatric hospitals or outpatients. We described patient characteristics, treatments for physical injuries, psychiatric interventions, and discharge status.

    Results: We identified 17,881 eligible patients during the 22-month study period. Overall, 38% of the patients did not have any psychiatric or behavioral comorbidities at admission. The most common suicide method was drug overdose (50%), followed by hanging (18%), jumping from a height (13%), cutting or piercing without wrist cutting (7.1%), poisoning (6.6%), and wrist cutting (5.4%). Suicide was completed by 2,639 (15%) patients. Among patients discharged to home, 51% did not receive any psychiatric intervention. In 468 (54%) acute-care hospitals, no psychiatric intervention was provided during the study period.

    Conclusion: We found that half of acute-care hospitals did not provide any hospital-based psychiatric care for patients with suicide attempts or self-harm.

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  • Takashi Oshio
    Article ID: JE20200032
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Precarious job status is negatively related with workers’ health. Research has yet to address whether and to what extent the area-level risk of precarious employment is associated with workers’ health, independently from their job status. We addressed this issue in the present study.

    Methods: We estimated multi-level logistic regression models, using repeated cross-sectional data comprising 253,048 men and 210,761 women aged 20–59 years, living in 47 prefectures. This data were obtained from population-based surveys conducted in 2010, 2013, and 2016 in Japan.

    Results: For male workers, the estimated odds of reporting poor self-rated health, subjective symptoms, and problems in activities of daily living for those residing in the prefectures in the highest tertile of the proportion of precarious employees were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.18), 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05–1.19), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.28) times, respectively, higher than those living in the prefectures in the lowest tertile, even after controlling for individuals’ job status and key covariates. The results remained largely similar, despite focusing on the sample with information about household income, which was available from the survey and controlling for it. In contrast, the results indicated that women’s health outcomes were not associated with the prefecture-level proportion of precarious employees.

    Conclusions: The area-level risk of precarious employment matters for male workers’ health independently from their job status, underscoring the importance of policy measures aimed to reduce the adverse impacts of precarious employment on workers’ health.

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  • Ying-Li Liu, Ying-Jun Mi, Bing Zhang, Hui-Jun Wang, Jie Yu, Xing-Bing ...
    Article ID: JE20190163
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 28, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The diagnosis of hypertension should be based on the mean of two or more properly measured BP readings on each of two visits for clinical practice, but one-visit strategy was applied in most epidemiological surveys. The impact of hypertension definition based on two visits on estimates of hypertension burden is unknown. This study aims to assess the impact of hypertension diagnosis based on a two-visit strategy for estimating hypertension burden in China.

    Methods: The one-visit and two-visit strategies were applied to investigate the incidence of hypertension in a cohort study based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 1989–2011. Additionally the prevalence of hypertension was investigated in a cross-sectional study based on the CHNS 2006–2009/2011 and the hypertension burden in China was estimated with data from the 2012–2015 China hypertension survey.

    Results: Overall, the age-adjusted incidence of hypertension based on the two-visit strategy (1.82%; 95% confidence interval [Cl] = 1.74%, 1.90%) was 62.1% lower than estimation based on the one-visit strategy (4.80%; 95% Cl = 4.68%, 4.93%). Similar results were found in the prevalence of hypertension (the one-visit: 18.13% [17.34, 18.92]; the two-visit: 9.47% [8.87, 10.07]). When the two-visit strategy was applied to the 2012–2015 China hypertension survey, the hypertension burden was predicted to be overestimated by 25.5%–47.8% (based on JNC 7) and 23.5%–48.2% (based on the 2017 ACC/AHA).

    Conclusion: The hypertension burden would decrease from 244.5 million persons to 127.5–182.3 million persons in China if the two-visit strategy was applied.

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  • Ayaka Igarashi, Jun Aida, Taro Kusama, Takahiro Tabuchi, Toru Tsuboya, ...
    Article ID: JE20190260
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 28, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The trend of the diffusion of heated tobacco products (HTPs) is a great concern because HTPs have become available worldwide. This study examined the sociodemographic characteristics of HTPs users in Japan, which were first launched.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey conducted in 2017. A total of 4,926 participants, aged 20–69 years, were included. The dependent variable was the type of tobacco products used. The independent variables were age and equivalent income. Two analyses estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for 1) being smokers compared to “non-smokers”, and 2) being “HTP smokers” compared to “only combustible cigarette smokers.” Analyses were stratified by sex. Educational attainment and occupation were also used in the sensitivity analyses.

    Results: The percentages of “non-smokers,” “only combustible cigarette smokers,” and “HTP smokers” were 82.8%, 14.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. When compared to the oldest participants (aged 60–69), the youngest participants (aged 20–29) tended to be “HTP smokers” (OR=7.90 (95% CI=3.09–20.22) for men and 9.28 (2.14–40.28) for women). Compared to participants with the lowest incomes (<2 million), those with the highest incomes (≥4 million) tended to use HTPs (OR=2.93 (95% CI=1.56–5.49) in men and 1.82 (0.73–4.54) in women). These trends were consistent when analyses included only smokers. There were consistent results in other SES measurements; educational attainment and occupation.

    Conclusions: Younger or more affluent people tended to use HTPs, although smoking rates among these populations were generally lower. New tobacco control efforts are required.

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  • Noritoshi Fukushima, Takafumi Abe, Jun Kitayuguchi, Chiaki Tanaka, Shi ...
    Article ID: JE20190320
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 28, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Physical activity (PA) guidelines for early childhood have been established worldwide, and adherence to PA guidelines has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of policies regarding PA promotion. Although there is a Japanese PA guideline for preschoolers, little is known about adherence to this recommendation. This study examined and compared proportions of meeting the Japanese PA guideline among preschoolers.

    Methods: Participants comprised 821 children aged 3–6 years from all 21 preschools and childcare facilities (hereafter collectively “preschools”) within Unnan city, Shimane prefecture, Japan. Data on PA levels were collected through a parent-report questionnaire in accordance with the Japanese PA guideline. This guideline recommends that preschoolers perform PA for at least 60 minutes every day. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-squared, and Mann–Whitney’s tests to compare adherence to the PA guideline.

    Results: Data of 441 participants from 20 preschools were analyzed. Of these, 292 (66.2%) preschoolers met the PA guideline. Boys (70.2%) showed a significantly higher proportion of meeting the PA guideline than girls (61.2%; p = 0.048). Proportions of meeting the PA guideline among preschool grades were not statistically different. Prevalence rates of meeting the PA guideline among 20 preschools considerably varied from 14.3% to 100% (p = 0.007).

    Conclusions: Two-thirds of preschoolers met the Japanese PA guideline, while adherence to PA recommendations differed between genders. Moreover, there were distinct variations of adherence to PA guideline among preschools. Possible determinants that cause the differences in adherence to the PA guideline at the individual and preschool-levels should be further evaluated.

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  • Keiko Wada, Michiko Tsuji, Kozue Nakamura, Shino Oba, Sakiko Nishizawa ...
    Article ID: JE20190176
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Backgrounds: Few studies have examined the association between seaweed intake and blood pressure in children. We conducted an intervention study to investigate whether seaweed intake affects blood pressure.

    Methods: Subjects were children aged 4 to 5 years attending a preschool in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, in 2010. Among 99 students, 89 (89.9%) were enrolled in our study. Nori (dried laver), an edible seaweed widely consumed in Japan, was used as a dietary intervention. Children in the intervention group were asked to consume 1.76 grams per day of roasted nori in addition to standard meals for 10 weeks. Children in the control group consumed their usual diet. Before the intervention and at the 10th week of the intervention, children’s blood pressure was measured three times successively using an automated sphygmomanometer with subjects in a sitting position. Changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between 55 children in the intervention group and 26 in the control group after adjustment for SBP and DBP before the intervention.

    Results: Changes in SBP were −8.29 mmHg in the intervention group and +0.50 mmHg in the control group (p for difference in change = 0.051). Changes in DBP were −6.77 mmHg in the intervention group and −0.05 mmHg in the control group (p = 0.031). In girls, no difference in blood pressure changes was found between the intervention and control groups.

    Conclusion: Nori intake lowered DBP level in boys. Seaweed intake might have preventive effects on elevated blood pressure in childhood.

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  • Manami Ochi, Aya Isumi, Tsuguhiko Kato, Satomi Doi, Takeo Fujiwara
    Article ID: JE20190177
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Background: The Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) study has been conducted since 2015 to clarify the associations between socioeconomic factors and child health, as well as to accumulate data for political evaluation of the child-poverty agenda. This paper describes the purpose and research design of the A-CHILD study and the baseline profiles of participants, together with the future framework for implementing this cohort study.

    Methods: We have conducted two types of continuous survey: a complete-sample survey started in 2015 as a first wave study to target first-grade children in all public elementary schools in Adachi City, Tokyo, and a biennial fixed grade observation survey started in 2016 in selected elementary and junior high schools. Questionnaires were answered by caregivers of all targeted children and also by the children themselves for those in the fourth grade and higher. The data of A-CHILD also combined information obtained from school health checkups of all school-grade children, as well as the results from blood test and measurement of blood pressure of eight-grade children since 2016.

    Results: The valid responses in the first wave were 4,291 (80.1%). The number of households in “living difficulties”, such as low household income or material deprivation, stood at 1,047 (24.5%).

    Conclusions: The A-CHILD study will contribute to the clarification of the impact of poverty on children’s health disparities and paves the way to managing this issue in the community.

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  • Madoka Iwase, Keitaro Matsuo, Masahiro Nakatochi, Isao Oze, Hidemi Ito ...
    Article ID: JE20190296
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20) and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11 586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models.

    Results: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77×10-4) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake.

    Conclusions: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.

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  • Fuyu Miyake, Chimed-Ochir Odgerel, Yuko Mine, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Toshihar ...
    Article ID: JE20190312
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Customarily, bedrooms in Japan are left unheated. Although several studies have reported that the use of a heating system has positive outcomes on respiratory infection and asthma, the preventive effect of heating systems against infectious diseases in children is not well known.

    Methods: We conducted a cohort study using two questionnaire surveys, one before the winter season in November, 2018 and the second after winter in March, 2019.

    Participants were 155 children who did not use a heating system in the bedroom and 156 children who did.

    Results: Having a heated bedroom with a heating system was associated with decreased odds for the frequency of cold (≥3 times) (adjust odds ratio (AOR): 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.65), duration of fever (≥3 days) (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22- 0.66), duration of medicine for a cold (≥3 days) (AOR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87-0.95), hospital visit due to cold (≥3 days) (AOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.94), absence from school or nursery (≥3 days) (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.27-0.70), influenza infection (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.71) and gastroenteritis (AOR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.72). Influenza vaccination reduced the odds of influenza infection (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.22-0.59) and absence from school or nursery (≥3days<=) (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.99).

    Conclusion: This study implies that the heating of bedrooms may have a preventive effect against infections among children. Broader dissemination of this knowledge in Japan will require cultural change through public health awareness.

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  • Satomi Ikeda, Ai Ikeda, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Miyuki Hori, Sachimi Kubo, ...
    Article ID: JE20190140
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background. The frequency of laughter has been associated with cardiovascular disease and related biomarkers, but no previous studies have examined association between laughter and changes in blood pressure levels. We therefore sought to identify temporal relationships between frequency of laughter in daily life and systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes in participants from 2010 to 2014.

    Methods. Participants were 554 men and 887 women aged 40-74 years who answered self-administered questionnaire quantifying frequency of laughter at baseline. We measured participant blood pressure levels twice using automated sphygmomanometers for each year from 2010 to 2014. The associations between laughter and changes in blood pressure over time were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models.

    Results. There was no significant difference in blood pressure according to frequency of laughter at baseline in either sex. Men with frequency of laughter 1 to 3 per month or almost never had significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels over four-year period (time-dependent difference (95% CI): 0.96 mmHg (-0.2, 1.8); p=0.05). Changes in blood pressure associated with infrequent laughter (i.e., 1 to 3 per month or almost never) were evident in men without antihypertensive medication use over four years (0.82 mmHg (0.1, 1.5); p=0.02) and men who were current drinkers at baseline (1.29 mmHg (-0.1, 2.3); p=0.04). No significant difference was found between frequency of laughter and systolic (0.23mmHg (-1.0, 1.5); p=0.72) and diastolic (-0.07mmHg (-0.8, 0.7); p=0.86) blood pressure changes in women.

    Conclusions. Infrequent laughter was associated with long-term blood pressure increment among middle-aged men.

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  • Naomi Kitano, Takashi Takeuchi, Tomohiro Suenaga, Nobuyuki Kakimoto, A ...
    Article ID: JE20190189
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Epidemiological studies show a U-shaped tendency in Kawasaki disease (KD)-related coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) across age categories. Since studies suggest seasonal variations in KD onset, this study aimed to clarify the epidemiologic features of CAAs, considering the seasons of KD-occurrence.

    Methods: We analyzed 2106 (males=1215, females=891) consecutive KD cases from October 1999 to September 2017 using our electronic database of annual surveys, targeting all hospitals with pediatric departments across Wakayama, Japan. The primary outcome was the presence/absence of CAAs measured by echocardiography 1 month after KD onset. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of combined patient age and sex for CAAs were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for four seasons.

    Results: The median age was 25 (range, 1-212) months. The proportion of males decreased with increasing age. The youngest age group (<6 months) showed an inverse summer/autumn to winter/spring ratio (>1.0) in KD-occurrence. CAAs were observed in 2.8% of cases (males=3.4%, females=2.1%), which significantly lessened in summer than in other seasons. Moreover, 50% (n=4/8) of cases with giant aneurysms experienced KD in autumn. Adjusted ORs for CAAs among males aged ≥60 months (3.0, 95%, CI 1.2-7.5) and females aged <6 months (3.6, 95%, CI 1.1-11.8) were significantly higher than those among males aged 12-35 months.

    Conclusions: Cumulative 18-year data of consecutive KD cases from one area suggest the influence of interactions between patient age and sex on the development of KD-related CAAs. The season of KD-occurrence may reflect the diversity of agents.

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  • Mari S. Oba, Yoshitaka Murakami, Yuji Nishiwaki, Keiko Asakura, Satoko ...
    Article ID: JE20190349
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS), chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene (CEAS), and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) are classified as intractable intestinal disorders in Japan. However, the national prevalence of these diseases remains unknown. We performed a nationwide survey to estimate the patient numbers and prevalence rates of these diseases throughout Japan in 2017.

    Methods: We conducted a mail-based survey targeting hospitals across Japan to estimate the annual numbers of patients with CCS, CEAS, and intestinal BD in 2017. Using a stratified random sampling method, we selected 2,979 hospital departments and asked them to report the number of patients who met specific diagnostic criteria. The total number of patients for each disease was estimated by multiplying the reported numbers by the reciprocal of the sampling rate and response rate. The corresponding prevalence rates per 1,000,000 population were calculated based on the mid-year population of Japan in 2017.

    Results: The overall survey response rate was 68.1% (2,029 departments). The estimated numbers of patients with CCS, CEAS, and intestinal BD were 473 (95% confidence interval [CI], 357–589), 388 (95% CI, 289–486), and 3,139 (95% CI, 2,749–3,529), respectively; the prevalence rates per 1,000,000 population were 3.7 (male: 4.0; female: 3.5), 3.1 (male: 3.0; female: 3.1), and 24.8 (male: 24.5; female: 25.0), respectively. The male-to-female ratios were 1.10, 0.94, and 0.93 for patients with CCS, CEAS, and intestinal BD, respectively.

    Conclusions: Estimates of the national prevalence of CCS, CEAS, and intestinal BD in Japan were generated and found to be higher than those previously reported.

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  • Mana Kogure, Naho Tsuchiya, Akira Narita, Takumi Hirata, Naoki Nakaya, ...
    Article ID: JE20190234
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Major reasons for long-term care insurance certification in Japan are stroke, dementia, and fracture. These diseases are reported to be associated with calcium intake. This study examined the association between calcium intake and impaired activities of daily living (ADL) using the data from NIPPON DATA90, consisting of representative sample of the Japanese population.

    Methods: A population-based nested case-control study was performed. A baseline survey was conducted in 1990, followed by ADL surveys of individuals ≥65 years old in 2000. Individuals with impaired ADL and selected age- and sex-matched controls were then identified. We obtained 132 pairs. Calcium intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. The association between calcium intake and impaired ADL was examined using conditional logistic regression models. To assess the accuracy of the estimates, we conducted bootstrap analyses.

    Results: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for impaired ADL compared with the group with a calcium intake of <476 mg/day were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–1.40) for the 476–606 mg/day group and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.21–0.94) for the ≥607 mg/day group in 2000 (P for linear trend = 0.03). After the bootstrap analyses, the inverse relationship unchanged (median OR per 100-mg rise in calcium intake, 0.87 [1,000 resamplings]; 95% CI, 0.76–0.97).

    Conclusions: After bootstrap analyses, calcium intake was inversely associated with impaired ADL 10 years after the baseline survey.

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  • Mariko Kanamori, Naoki Kondo, Yasuhide Nakamura
    Article ID: JE20190090
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Recent research suggests that Japanese inter-prefecture inequality in the risk of death before reaching 5 years old has increased since the 2000s. Despite this, there have been no studies examining recent trends in inequality in the infant mortality rate (IMR) with associated socioeconomic characteristics. This study specifically focused on household occupation, environment, and support systems for perinatal parents.

    Methods: Using national vital statistics by household occupation aggregated in 47 prefectures from 1999 through 2017, we conducted multilevel negative binomial regression analysis to evaluate occupation/IMR associations and joinpoint analysis to observe temporal trends. We also created thematic maps to depict the geographical distribution of the IMR.

    Results: Compared to the most privileged occupations (ie, type II regular workers; including employees in companies with over 100 employees), IMR ratios were 1.26 for type I regular workers (including employees in companies with less than 100 employees), 1.41 for the self-employed, 1.96 for those engaged in farming, and 6.48 for unemployed workers. The IMR ratio among farming households was 1.75 in the prefectures with the highest population density (vs the lowest) and 1.41 in prefectures with the highest number of farming households per 100 households (vs the lowest). Joinpoint regression showed a yearly monotonic increase in the differences and ratios of IMRs among farming households compared to type II regular worker households. For unemployed workers, differences in IMRs increased sharply from 2009 while ratios increased from 2012.

    Conclusions: Inter-occupational IMR inequality increased from 1999 through 2017 in Japan. Further studies using individual-level data are warranted to better understand the mechanisms that contributed to this increase.

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  • Michiko Furuta, Kenji Takeuchi, Toru Takeshita, Akihiko Tanaka, Shino ...
    Article ID: JE20190165
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Toothbrushing is a health-related lifestyle habit and has been reported to contribute not only to oral health but also to some parameters of general health; however, little research has been conducted to understand the association of the frequency and timing of toothbrushing with the development of comprehensive metabolic abnormalities, with consideration of oral health condition. In this study, using longitudinal data, we examined this association in Japanese adults, adjusting for periodontal condition.

    Methods: A 5-year longitudinal study was performed with 4,537 participants between 35 and 64 years old who underwent an annual dental examination in both 2003 and 2008. Data about toothbrushing habits and metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, were analyzed using Poisson regression analysis.

    Results: The percentage of participants with a toothbrushing frequency ≤1 time/day was 29.4%, and that for those not brushing their teeth at night was 21.4%. The incidences of obesity and hyperglycemia after 5 years were 5.5% and 28.4%, respectively. A toothbrushing frequency ≤1 time/day was associated with development of obesity (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–2.80), after adjusting for periodontal condition and potential risk factors. A significant association between not brushing teeth at night and hyperglycemia (PRR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02–1.66) was observed in participants with toothbrushing frequency of 1 time/day. No association was found between toothbrushing habits and other metabolic abnormalities.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that toothbrushing habits are associated with the development of obesity and hyperglycemia.

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  • Thomas Svensson, Manami Inoue, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Hiroyasu Iso, ...
    Article ID: JE20190210
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Short and long sleep durations are associated with mortality outcomes. The association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes may differ according to sex and age.

    Methods: Participants of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study) were aged 40–69 years and had completed a detailed questionnaire on lifestyle factors. Sex- and age-stratified analyses on the association between habitual sleep duration and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer and other causes included 46,152 men and 53,708 women without a history of CVD or cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to determine hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

    Results: Mean follow-up time was 19.9 years for men and 21.0 years for women. In the multivariable sex-stratified models, some categories of sleep durations ≥8 hours were positively associated with mortality from all-causes, CVD, and other causes in men and women compared with 7 hours. The sex- and age-stratified analyses did not reveal any major differences in the association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes in groups younger and older than 50 years of age. The only exception was the significant interaction between sleep duration and age in women for mortality from other causes.

    Conclusions: Sleep durations ≥8 hours are associated with mortality outcomes in men and women. Age may be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and mortality from other causes in women.

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  • Megumi Tsubota-Utsugi, Jun Watanabe, Jun Takebayashi, Tomoyuki Oki, Yo ...
    Article ID: JE20190237
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Previous Japanese studies have led to the erroneous conclusion of antioxidant capacity (AOC) intakes of the overall Japanese diet due to limitations in the number and types of food measured, especially in rice and seafood intake. The aims of the study were to construct an AOC database of foods representative of the typical Japanese diet and to clarify the high contributors to AOC intake from the overall diet of the Japanese population.

    Methods: Commonly consumed foods were estimated using 3-day dietary records (DRs) over the four seasons among 55 men and 58 women in Japan. To generate an AOC database suitable for the typical Japanese diet, hydrophilic (H-)/lipophilic (L-) oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of foods in each food group were measured via validated methods using the food intake rankings. Subsequently, we estimated the AOC intake and the AOC characteristics of a typical Japanese diet.

    Results: Of 989 food items consumed by the participants, 189 food items were measured, which covered 78.8% of the total food intake. The most commonly consumed types of antioxidant-containing food were tea, soybean products, coffee, and rice according to H-ORAC, and soybean products, fish and shellfish, vegetables, and algae according to L-ORAC.

    Conclusions: The characteristics of high AOC intake in rice and seafood more appropriately reflected the Japanese-style diet. Further studies are expected to clarify the association between food-derived AOC and its role in preventing or ameliorating lifestyle-related diseases.

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  • Sung Keun Park, Ju Young Jung, Chang-Mo Oh, Min-Ho Kim, Eunhee Ha, Don ...
    Article ID: JE20190223
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Previous studies have suggested the potential association between renal diseases and gallstone. The extent of proteinuria is recognized as a marker for the severity of chronic kidney disease. However, little data is available to identify the risk of incident gallstone according to the level of proteinuria.

    Methods: Using a data of 207,356 Koreans registered in National Health Insurance Database, we evaluated the risk of gallstone according to the levels of urine dipstick proteinuria through an average follow-up of 4.36 years. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups by urine dipstick proteinuria (negative: 0, mild: 1+ and heavy: 2+ or greater). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model was used to assess the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident cholelithiasis according to urine dipstick proteinuria.

    Results: The group with higher urine dipstick proteinuria had worse metabolic, renal, and hepatic profiles than those without proteinuria, which were similarly observed in the group with incident cholelithiasis. The heavy proteinuria group had the greatest incidence of cholelithiasis (2.39%), followed by mild (1.54%) and negative proteinuria groups (1.39%). Analysis for multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model indicated that the heavy proteinuria group had higher risk of cholelithiasis than other groups (negative: reference, mild proteinuria: HR 0.97 [95% CI, 0.74–1.26], and heavy proteinuria: HR 1.46 [95% CI, 1.09–1.96]).

    Conclusion: Urine dipstick proteinuria of 2+ or greater was significantly associated with increased risk for incident gallstone.

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  • Yukari Taniyama, Takahiro Tabuchi, Yuko Ohno, Toshitaka Morishima, Sum ...
    Article ID: JE20190242
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The impact of hospital surgical volume on long-term mortality has not been well assessed in Japan, especially for esophageal, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer, although these three cancers need a high level of medical-technical skill. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between hospital surgical volume and 3-year mortality for these severe-prognosis cancer patients.

    Methods: Patients who received curative surgery for esophageal, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancers were analyzed using the Osaka Cancer Registry data from 2006–2013. Hospital surgical volume was categorized into tertiles (high/middle/low) according to the average annual number of curative surgeries per hospital for each cancer. Three-year survivals were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) of 3-year mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for patient characteristics.

    Results: Three-year survival was higher with increased hospital surgical volume for all three cancers, but the relative importance of volume varied across sites. After adjustment for all confounding factors, HRs in middle- and low-volume hospitals were 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.58) and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.33–1.86) for esophageal cancer; 1.39 (95% CI, 1.15–1.67) and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.30–1.89) for biliary tract cancer; 1.38 (95% CI, 1.16–1.63) and 1.90 (95% CI, 1.60–2.25) for pancreatic cancer, respectively. In particular for localized pancreatic cancer, the impact of hospital surgical volume on 3-year mortality was strong (HR 2.66; 95% CI, 1.61–4.38).

    Conclusion: We suggest that patients who require curative surgery for esophageal, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer may benefit from referral to high-volume hospitals.

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  • Atsushi Hozawa, Kozo Tanno, Naoki Nakaya, Tomohiro Nakamura, Naho Tsuc ...
    Article ID: JE20190271
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background

    We established a community-based cohort study to assess the long-term impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on disaster victims and gene-environmental interactions on the incidence of major diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

    Methods

    We asked participants to join our cohort in the health check-up settings and assessment center based settings. Inclusion criteria was aged 20 years or over and living in Miyagi or Iwate Prefecture. We obtained information on lifestyle, effect of disaster, blood, and urine information (Type 1 survey), and some detailed measurements (Type 2 survey), for example, carotid echography, calcaneal ultrasound bone mineral density, and so on. All participants agreed to measure genome information and to distribute their information widely.

    Results

    As a result, 87,865 gave their informed consent to join our study. Participation rate at health check-up site was about 70%. The participants with Type 1 survey were more likely to have psychological distress than those of Type 2 survey, and women were more likely to have psychological distress than men. Additionally, coastal residents were more likely to have higher degrees of psychological distress than inland residents regardless of sex.

    Conclusion

    This cohort comprised large sample size and it contains information on disaster, genome information, and metabolome information. This cohort also had several detailed measurements. Using this cohort enabled us to clarify the long-term effect of disaster and also to establish personalized prevention based on genome, metabolome, and other omics information.

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  • Yuting Li, Ehab S. Eshak, Kokoro Shirai, Keyang Liu, JY Dong, Hiroyasu ...
    Article ID: JE20190304
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for gastric cancer. However, findings from cohort studies that examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk among Japanese population are not conclusive.

    Methods: A total of 54,682 Japanese men and women participating in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study completed a questionnaire, including alcohol consumption information. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    Results: After a median 13.4-year follow-up, we documented 801 men and 466 women incident cases of gastric cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among men (HRs in ex-drinkers and current alcohol consumption of <23 g, 23–<46 g, 46–<69 g, and ≥69 g/d categories versus never drinkers were 1.82; 95% CI, 1.38–2.42, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10–1.80, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.17–1.85, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48–2.38, and 1.85; 95% CI, 1.35–2.53, respectively, and that for 10 g increment of alcohol consumption after excluding ex-drinkers was 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04–1.10). The association in men was observed for cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer (HRs in the highest alcohol consumption category versus never drinkers were 9.96; 95% CI, 2.22–44.67 for cardia cancer and 2.40; 95% CI, 1.64–3.52 for non-cardia cancer). However, no such trend was observed in women.

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese men, regardless of anatomical subsite of the cancer.

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  • Mengying Wang, Isao Muraki, Keyang Liu, Kokoro Shirai, Akiko Tamakoshi ...
    Article ID: JE20190091
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Little evidence is available about the association between diabetes and respiratory disease mortality among Japanese populations. We aimed to explore the association between diabetes and the risk of respiratory diseases mortality through a nationwide prospective study in Japan.

    Methods: We followed 95,056 participants (39,925 men and 55,131 women) for a median 17.1 years. The information about diabetes status, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyles was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality from respiratory diseases associated with baseline diabetes status.

    Results: We identified 2,838 deaths from total respiratory diseases (1,759 respiratory infection, 432 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 647 other respiratory diseases). The association between diabetes and total respiratory disease mortality was statistically significant among women (HR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.39–2.37) but of borderline statistical significance in men (P for interaction <0.01). Besides, there were significant associations between diabetes and mortality from respiratory infection among both men and women (HR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10–1.76 and HR 2.30; 95% CI, 1.71–3.11, respectively; P for interaction <0.001). However, we failed to detect any statistically significant association between diabetes and COPD mortality. Moreover, the subgroup analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and total respiratory disease mortality was stronger in never smokers when compared with ever smokers (P for interaction = 0.02).

    Conclusions: Significant association was observed between diabetes and the risk of total respiratory disease mortality, in particular from respiratory infection. Prevention and control of respiratory diseases, especially respiratory infection, should be paid more attention among people with diabetes in clinical and public health practice.

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  • Sayaka Adachi, Norie Sawada, Kenya Yuki, Miki Uchino, Motoki Iwasaki, ...
    Article ID: JE20190116
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Although the consumption of vegetables and fruits is reported to influence the risk of cataract, no prospective study of this association from Asia has yet appeared. Here, we investigated the association between vegetable and fruit intake and cataract incidence in a large-scale population-based prospective cohort study in Japan.

    Methods: This study included 32,387 men and 39,333 women aged 45–74 years who had no past history of cataract and had completed a dietary questionnaire of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study. The incidence of cataract was evaluated after 5-year follow-up. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the sex-specific odds ratios (ORs), with adjustment for confounding factors.

    Results: We identified 1,836 incident cataracts in 594 men and 1,242 women. In men, the OR for cataract was decreased with higher intake of vegetables (ORQ5 vs Q1, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59–1.01; Ptrend across quartile categories = 0.03) and cruciferous vegetables (ORQ5 vs Q1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57–0.96; Ptrend = 0.02). In contrast, the OR for cataract was increased with higher intake of vegetables among women (ORQ5 vs Q1, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06–1.53; Ptrend = 0.01). Green and yellow vegetable and fruit intake were not associated with cataract in either sex.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that vegetables may reduce the risk of cataract in men, but not in women.

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  • Yoshiaki Usui, Keitaro Matsuo, Isao Oze, Tomotaka Ugai, Yuriko Koyanag ...
    Article ID: JE20190184
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: While duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) are both H. pylori infection-related diseases, individuals with DU are known to have lower risk for GC. Many epidemiological studies have identified the PSCA rs2294008 T-allele as a risk factor of GC, while others have found an association between the rs2294008 C-allele and risk of DU and gastric ulcer (GU). Following these initial reports, however, few studies have since validated these associations. Here, we aimed to validate the association between variations in PSCA and the risk of DU/GU and evaluate its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population.

    Methods: Six PSCA SNPs were genotyped in 584 DU cases, 925 GU cases, and 8,105 controls from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC). Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the SNPs and risk of DU/GU.

    Results: PSCA rs2294008 C-allele was associated with per allele OR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18–1.51; P = 2.28 × 10−6) for the risk of DU. This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit, and H. pylori status. On the other hand, we did not observe an association between the risk of GU and PSCA SNPs.

    Conclusions: Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and the risk of DU in a Japanese population.

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  • Nam-Hee Kim, Ichiro Kawachi
    Article ID: JE20190119
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: In 2009, the South Korean government expanded universal health insurance to include oral health services. In the present study, we sought to examine whether improved access resulted in a reduction in income-based self-reported oral health inequalities.

    Methods: We analyzed repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) waves IV through VI (2007–2015). We analyzed self-reported oral health status among 68,431 subjects. Changes in oral health inequalities across four income levels (low, middle-low, middle-high, and high) were assessed with the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII).

    Results: The average oral health status of children and adolescents improved the most over the observation period. The absolute magnitude of oral health inequalities (measured by the SII) improved for most groups, with the notable exception of young male adults. By contrast, the ratio of poor oral health between high- and low-income groups (measured by the RII) changed little over time, indicating that relative inequalities remained resistant to change.

    Conclusions: The expansion of dental health insurance may not be sufficient to move the needle on self-reported oral health inequalities among adults.

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  • Taiji Noguchi, Hiroko Nakagawa-Senda, Yuya Tamai, Takeshi Nishiyama, M ...
    Article ID: JE20190146
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Second-hand smoke exposure has been associated with poor mental health. However, among Japanese adults, little is known about the association between second-hand smoking and depressive symptoms. We examined this association in a cross-sectional study among a Japanese general adult population sample.

    Methods: Japanese adults were recruited from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Okazaki area between 2012 and 2017. Second-hand smoke exposure and smoking status were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on their frequency of exposure to second-hand smoke, non-smokers and smokers were categorized as “almost never,” “sometimes,” and “almost every day”. Depressive symptoms were defined by a Kessler 6 score ≥5 points. We performed a multivariable Poisson regression analysis to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depressive symptoms.

    Results: Overall, 5,121 participants (4,547 non-smokers and 574 smokers) were included whose mean age was 63.6 (standard deviation [SD], 10.3) years for non-smokers and 59.33 (SD, 10.2) years for smokers. The association between second-hand smoking and depressive symptoms was significant among non-smokers, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers, PRs compared with “almost never” were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09–1.42) for “sometimes” and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.09–1.84) for “almost every day” (P for trend <0.001); among smokers, PRs compared with “almost never” were 1.30 (95% CI, 0.82–2.06) for “sometimes” and 1.44 (95% CI, 0.90–2.33) for “almost every day” (P for trend = 0.144).

    Conclusions: Second-hand smoking and depressive symptoms were associated among non-smokers. Our findings indicate the importance of tobacco smoke control for mental health.

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  • Shotaro Aso, Hiroki Matsui, Hideo Yasunaga
    Article ID: JE20190158
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in children with mild head injuries. People in Japan are concerned about radiation exposure and radiation-induced cancer because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011. This study investigated whether the accident influenced the use of CT in children with mild head injuries.

    Methods: Using the Japan Medical Data Center database, we identified patients aged ≤15 years visiting hospitals because of mild head injuries from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. We excluded patients who were admitted to the hospital or received other medical examinations. Regression discontinuity analysis was used to compare proportions of patients undergoing head CT and having clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) overlooked before versus after the accident, adjusting for patient characteristics, secular trends, and hospital effect.

    Results: Eligible patients (n = 40,440) were classified as visiting the hospital before (n = 11,659) or after (n = 28,781) the accident. The regression discontinuity analysis showed that the accident was associated with a reduction in the proportion of patients undergoing head CT (odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.86), whereas the accident was not associated with an increase in cases where ciTBI was overlooked (OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.13–4.00).

    Conclusions: The use of CT in children with mild head injuries declined after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Improving awareness of radiation exposure risks among patients and physicians could reduce unnecessary CT.

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  • Aya Kinjo, Yuki Kuwabara, Maya Fujii, Aya Imamoto, Yoneatsu Osaki, Rur ...
    Article ID: JE20190199
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 30, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence of heated tobacco product (HTP) smokers 3 years after the launch of HTPs in Japan.

    Methods: Our study, performed in February 2018 in Japan, had a cross-sectional population-based design. A total of 4,628 adult participants (2,121 men and 2,507 women) were randomly sampled from all regions of Japan. The response rate was 57.9%. Interviews were conducted by trained investigators who visited participants’ homes. A survey on current (past 30 days) and lifetime tobacco use (including e-cigarettes and HTPs), as well as numerous sociodemographic factors, was conducted.

    Results: The age-adjusted rates and estimated number of lifetime-HTP smokers were 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5–15.6%; 7.11 million men) and 3.7% (95% CI, 2.9–4.4%; 1.99 million women). The age-adjusted rates for current HTP smokers were 8.3% (95% CI, 7.1–9.6%; 4.21 million men) and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.3–2.4%; 1.02 million women). Multiple variables were found to be associated with a higher prevalence of current HTP use, including being male, aged 20–39 years, a current Internet user, a risky drinker, or a heavy episodic drinker. HTP use was also higher among men with 10 years or more of education, women with 15 years or less of education, and men with middle- or high-level household incomes.

    Conclusion: We concluded that HTP use has increased substantially in Japan. However, regulations for HTPs are weaker than those for combustible cigarettes in Japan. Thus, HTPs should be subjected to the same regulations as combustible tobacco products.

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  • Kanami Tanigawa, Satoyo Ikehara, Takashi Kimura, Hironori Imano, Isao ...
    Article ID: JE20190020
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Reproductive history has been addressed as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the relationship between reproductive history and CVD mortality in Japanese women.

    Methods: We followed 53,836 women without previous CVD or cancer history from 1988–1990 to 2009 in a prospective cohort study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD mortality were estimated according to the number of deliveries and maternal age at first delivery.

    Results: During the follow-up, 2,982 CVD-related deaths were identified. There was U-shaped association between the number of deliveries and risk of CVD mortality with reference to three deliveries, although the excess risk of CVD mortality associated with ≥5 deliveries was of borderline statistical significance. The corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.33 (95% CI, 1.12–1.58) and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.99–1.24). In addition, higher CVD mortality was associated with maternal age ≥28 years at first delivery than maternal age of 24–27 years at first delivery. The multivariable HRs were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10–1.36) for 28–31 years at first delivery and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.04–1.52) for ≥32 years at first delivery. Moreover, among women with ≥3 deliveries, maternal age ≥28 years at first delivery was associated with 1.2- to 1.5-fold increased CVD mortality.

    Conclusion: The number of deliveries showed a U-shaped association with risk of CVD mortality. Higher maternal age at first delivery was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, and excessive risk in women aged ≥28 years at first delivery was noted in those with ≥3 deliveries.

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  • Xiling Yin, Deyun Li, Kejing Zhu, Xiaodong Liang, Songxu Peng, Aijun T ...
    Article ID: JE20190152
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 09, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The patterns and risk factors of intentional injuries compared to unintentional injuries among Chinese children and adolescents have not been examined in depth. This work comprehensively describes patterns of intentional injuries in China, for which little information has been previously published.

    Methods: All cases involving individuals 0–17 years old registered at emergency rooms and outpatient clinics were examined using data submitted to the National Injury Surveillance System from 2006 through 2017. A logistic regression model was performed to explore the risk factors related to intentional injuries compared to unintentional injuries.

    Results: A total of 81,459 (95.1%) unintentional injuries, 4,218 (4.9%) intentional injuries (4,013 violent attacks and 205 self-mutilation/suicide) cases were identified. Blunt injuries accounted for 59.4% of violent attacks, while cuts and poisoning accounted for 37.1% and 23.4% of injuries involving self-mutilation/suicide, respectively. For unintentional injuries, falls (50.4%) ranked first. Additional risk factors for intentional injuries included being male (odds ratio [OR] 1.6), coming from rural areas (OR 1.9), being staff or workers (OR 2.2), and being a student (OR 1.8). As the age of the patients increased, so did the risk of intentional injuries (OR 5.0 in the 15–17 age group). Intentional injuries were more likely to occur at 00:00–03:00 am (OR 2.0).

    Conclusions: Intentional injuries affected more males, rural and older children, school students, and staff or workers. The mechanisms and occurrence times differed according to age group. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce the dropout of rural students, strengthen the school’s violence prevention plan, and reduce self-harm.

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  • Sachiko Baba, Ehab S. Eshak, Kokoro Shirai, Takeo Fujiwara, Yui Yamaok ...
    Article ID: JE20190160
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Spanking can cause adverse psychological development and biological functional changes in children. However, spanking is widely used by parents in Japan. This study explored the risk factors for family member’s spanking of 3.5-year-old children using nationwide population data in Japan.

    Methods: Surveys were administered to family members in Japan who had a child in 2001 (first cohort) or in 2010 (second cohort), and the data when their child was 0.5, 1.5, and 3.5 years old were used. We used multivariate binary and ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between risk factors and spanking children at 3.5 years of age, which was subcategorized into frequencies of never, sometimes, and always spanking, presented with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    Results: Among 70,450 families, 62.8% and 7.9% sometimes and always spanked their children, respectively. Children in the second cohort were spanked less frequently compared with those in the first cohort, and fathers who responded to the questionnaire spanked children less frequently than mothers who responded. Identified associated factors for spanking were male child, presence of siblings of the child, not living in a two-parent household, not living in a three-generation household, younger parents, parents with lower education, no outside work or unstable work, and lower family income.

    Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of spanking and its associated factors. Approaching those with lower socioeconomic factors and promoting fathers’ involvement in parenting may be important public health strategies for reducing and preventing spanking.

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  • Aya Goto, Pamela J. Surkan, Michael R. Reich
    Article ID: JE20190265
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Hiroshi Murayama, Takeo Fujiwara, Hiroyu ...
    Article ID: JE20190141
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 26, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Physical activity can help to protect against cognitive decline in older adults. However, little is known about the potential combined relationships of time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with indices of cognitive health. We examined the cross-sectional associations of objectively-determined sedentary and physically-active behaviors with an indicator of cognitive function decline (CFD) in older adults.

    Methods: A randomly-recruited sample of 511 Japanese older adults (47% male; aged 65–84 years) wore a tri-axial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days in 2017. Cognitive function was assessed by interviewers using the Japanese version of Mini-Mental State Examination, with a score of ≤23 indicating CFD. Associations of sedentary and physically-active behaviors with CFD were examined using a compositional logistic regression analysis based on isometric log-ratio transformations of time use, adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results: Forty one (9.4%) of the participants had an indication of CFD. Activity compositions differed significantly between CFD and normal cognitive function (NCF); the proportion of time spent in MVPA was 39.1% lower, relative to the overall mean composition in those with CFD, and was 5.3% higher in those with NCF. There was a significant beneficial association of having a higher proportion of MVPA relative to other activities with CFD. LPA and SB were not associated with CFD when models were corrected for time spent in all activity behaviors.

    Conclusions: Larger relative contribution of MVPA was favorably associated with an indicator of CFD in older adults.

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  • Hong-Lan Li, Jie Fang, Long-Gang Zhao, Da-Ke Liu, Jing Wang, Li-Hua Ha ...
    Article ID: JE20190178
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 26, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the effects of personal characteristics on the validation of self-reported type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in urban Shanghai.

    Methods: During 2015 through 2016, 4,322 participants were recruited in this validation study. We considered the criteria of diabetes verification to use the laboratory assays of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), or self-reported use of diabetic medication.

    Results: When taking diabetic medication or FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L was as identified diabetes, the measurements of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Kappa value of self-reported diabetes were 72.0%, 99.2%, 95.1%, 93.9%, and 0.78, respectively. If an additional HbA1c test was used for 708 subjects (aged <65 years), slightly lower values of sensitivity, NPV, and Kappa were observed. More potential diabetes cases were found compared to only using FPG. Subjects who were female, older, or had a family history of diabetes had sensitivity over 75% and excellent Kappa over 0.8, while the sensitivity and Kappa of opposite groups had poorer values. Specificity, PPV, and NPV were similar among groups with different demographic or disease characteristics. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 19.3% in the study (14.1% diagnosed diabetes, 5.2% undiagnosed diabetes). About 26.2% of subjects were pre-diabetic. Additional HbA1c test indicated an increased prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes.

    Conclusions: Findings support self-reported diabetes is sufficiently valid to be used in large-scale, population-based epidemiologic studies. Participants with different characteristics may have different indicators in terms of validation, such as age, gender, and family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives.

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  • Justin Rodgers, Rockli Kim, S.V. Subramanian
    Article ID: JE20190064
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 12, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The complex etiology of child growth failure and anemia—commonly used indicators of child undernutrition—involving proximate and distal risk factors at multiple levels is generally recognized. However, their independent and joint effects are often assessed with no clear conceptualization of inferential targets.

    Methods: We utilized hierarchical linear modeling and a nationally representative sample of 139,116 children aged 6–59 months from India (2015–2016) to estimate the extent to which a comprehensive set of 27 covariates explained the within- and between-population variation in height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and hemoglobin level.

    Results: Most of the variation in child anthropometry and hemoglobin measures was attributable to within-population differences (80–85%), whereas between-population differences (including communities, districts, and states) accounted for only 15–20%. The proximate and distal covariates explained 0.2–7.5% of within-population variation and 2.1–34.0% of between-population variation, depending on the indicator of interest. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in the magnitude of within-population variation, and the fraction explained, in child anthropometry and hemoglobin measures across the 36 states/union territories of India.

    Conclusions: Policies and interventions aimed at reducing between-population inequalities in child undernutrition may require a different set of components than those concerned with within-population inequalities. Both are needed to promote the health of the general population, as well as that of high-risk children.

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  • Yuiko Nagamine, Takeo Fujiwara, Yukako Tani, Hiroshi Murayama, Takahir ...
    Article ID: JE20190083
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 12, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Socioeconomic mobility affects health throughout the life course. However, it is not known whether there are gender differences in the association between life-course subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) mobility and mortality at older ages.

    Methods: Participants were 16,690 community-dwelling adults aged 65–100 years in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). Baseline information including demographic characteristics, depression, and lifestyle factors were collected in 2010. Participants’ vital status was confirmed in 2013 via linkage to death records. We categorized life-course socioeconomic mobility into the following categories: ‘persistently high’, ‘downward mobility’, ‘upward mobility’, and ‘persistently low’. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality.

    Results: Mortality HRs for the ‘downward’ group were 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.74) among men and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.94–1.71) among women in comparison with the ‘persistently high’ group. Compared to the ‘persistently low’ group, the HRs for the ‘upward’ group were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.35–0.83) among women and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.73–1.24) among men. Associations were not changed after adjusting for objective socioeconomic status but were attenuated by depression.

    Conclusions: ‘Downward’ mobility was associated with mortality among men, but not among women. Depression appeared to mediate the association. A protective effect of upward mobility was observed among women but not among men.

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