Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 69 articles from Advance online publication
  • Yuko Goto, Keiko Wada, Takahiro Uji, Sachi Koda, Fumi Mizuta, Michiyo ...
    Article ID: JE20180243
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2019

    Background: The association between the number of teeth and mortality among community-dwelling people has been examined in many epidemiological studies. However, few Japanese studies have included cancer mortality as an endpoint. We prospectively investigated the association between number of remaining teeth and all-cause and cancer mortality in a Japanese community.

    Methods: This study included participants in the Takayama study who were aged 35–70 years old at baseline in 1992. Information on the number of remaining teeth was obtained from 11,273 participants via questionnaire at the second survey in 2002. The response rate was 66.9%. Deaths and their causes were ascertained during 11.8 years of follow-up.

    Results: A total of 1098 deaths (435 cancer-related and 235 cardiovascular-related) were identified during the follow-up period. After adjusting for covariates, participants with 0 to 9 teeth were at moderate but significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.39) and cancer mortality (HR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03–1.67) as compared to those with 20 or more teeth. With regard to cancer site, a significant association was observed for lung cancer (HR for 0–9 teeth vs. 20 or more teeth, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.08–2.83). This association was somewhat strengthened among never-smokers (HR 3.56; 95% CI, 1.02–12.45).

    Conclusions: We observed that a lower number of remaining teeth was significantly associated with increased risk from all-cause and lung cancer mortality. Further studies on the number of teeth and lung and other types of cancer are needed.

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  • Bingqing Liu, Lulu Song, Lina Zhang, Lulin Wang, Mingyang Wu, Shunqing ...
    Article ID: JE20180245
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2019


    Pregnancy leads to substantial maternal metabolic and lifestyle alterations. However, it is still unclear whether repeated exposure to these changes will influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between the number of pregnancies and GDM among Chinese women.


    A total of 7008 subjects from the Healthy Baby Cohort study were included in this study. The number of pregnancies was classified into three categories: 1, 2, or ≥ 3 pregnancies. GDM was diagnosed using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were used.


    In the fully adjusted model, women with ≥ 3 pregnancies had a 1.27-fold (95% CI: 1.05, 1.54) higher risk of GDM. Among women ≥ 30 years old, 2 and ≥ 3 pregnancies were associated with a higher risk of GDM (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.73; OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.01). Among women with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 Kg/m2, ≥ 3 pregnancies were associated with a 1.35-fold (95% CI: 1.09, 1.67) higher risk of GDM.


    Our findings suggested that higher numbers of pregnancies is an independent risk factor of GDM. The associations between number of pregnancies and GDM were more prominent among women who were ≥ 30 years old or with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 Kg/m2.

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  • Midori Noguchi, Sumi Kojima, Toshimi Sairenchi, Minako Kinuta, Miyae Y ...
    Article ID: JE20180194
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 13, 2019

    Background. It is uncertain whether the health counselling after community-based health checkups for high-risk individuals of lifestyle-related disease accelerates their referral to physicians.

    Methods. We performed a clustered randomized controlled trial of untreated high-risk individuals aged 40 to 74 years, screened from the annual health checkup in 2014 and 2015 under the national health insurance in 43 municipalities around Japan, assigning 21 intervention and 22 usual care municipalities. The high-risk conditions were severe forms of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia for men and proteinuria. For the intervention group, the theory-based health counselling was performed to accelerate referrals to physicians while its own counselling of each municipality for the usual care group. Data on clinical visits and risk factors were collected systematically and anonymously from the databases of health insurance qualification, health insurance claims and annual health checkups. Hypotheses are that the cumulative proportion of seeing physicians (clinical visits) is higher in the intervention than the usual care groups, and that those in the intervention group have the lower cumulative incidence of composite outcomes associated with lifestyle-related diseases.

    Results. The number of subjects for the analyses were 8,977 in the intervention group and 6,733 in the usual care group. Among them, 6,758 had hypertension, 2,147 diabetes, 2,861 dyslipidemia, and 1,221 proteinuria in the intervention group, and 4,833, 1,517, 2,262 and 845 in the usual care group. There were no material differences in mean levels and proportions of major cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups.

    Conclusions. We expected to provide scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health counselling.

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  • Kunihito Nishikawa, Masayuki Yamamoto
    Article ID: JE20180268
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 13, 2019

    Background: The combined associations of body mass index (BMI) levels and metabolic dysfunction on medical and dental care utilizations is unclear.

    Methods: A 4-year follow-up study was performed in 16,386 Japanese male employees (mean age, 48.2±11.0 years) without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, or renal failure. They were classified into 8 phenotypes based on 4 BMI levels (underweight <18.5, normal-weight 18.5-24.9, overweight 25.0-29.9, and obesity ≥30.0 kg/m2) and the presence or absence of ≥2 of 4 metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high blood sugar. Based on their health insurance claims data, we compared medical and dental care days and costs among the 8 different BMI/metabolic phenotypes during 2010-2013.

    Results: The combinations of BMI levels and metabolic status were significantly associated with the adjusted mean and median medical outpatient days and costs, and the median dental outpatient days and costs. The obesity/unhealthy subjects had the highest medical outpatient days and costs, and the underweight/unhealthy subjects had the highest dental outpatient days and costs. The underweight/unhealthy subjects also had the highest medical inpatient days and hospitalization rates of CVD, and had higher medical costs compared with the obesity/healthy subjects. The differences in median medical costs between healthy and unhealthy phenotypes were larger year by year across all BMI levels.

    Conclusions: Identification of obesity phenotypes using both BMI levels (including the underweight level) and metabolic status may more precisely predict healthcare days and costs compared with either BMI or metabolic status alone.

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  • Keiko Kabasawa, Junta Tanaka, Kazutoshi Nakamura, Yumi Ito, Kinya Yosh ...
    Article ID: JE20180220
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 06, 2019

    Background: Evidence for primary prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is insufficient. The population-based prospective Uonuma CKD cohort study aims to explore associations of lifestyle and other risk factors with CKD. We report here the study design and baseline profiles.

    Methods: All 67,322 residents aged ≥40 years in Minamiuonuma City, Uonuma City, and Yuzawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, Japan and 11,406 who attended local health-check examinations were targeted for baseline questionnaire and biochemical sampling, respectively. Information was gathered from 43,217 (64.2%) questionnaires and 8,052 (70.6%) biochemical samples; 6,945 participants consented to both questionnaire and biochemical sampling at baseline, conducted between fiscal 2012 and 2015. Participants provided information regarding sociodemographic, lifestyle, and self-reported outcomes. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured. The primary outcome is CKD based on self-report and biochemical/clinical diagnosis.

    Results: Mean (standard deviation) age of questionnaire respondents was 63.3 (12.5) years for men and 64.3 (13.3) years for women. Among participants who submitted urine samples, median ACR (interquartile range; IQR) was 10.0 (5.0-24.0) mg/g for men and 13.0 (7.7-27.0) mg/g for women, and median eGFR (IQR) was 73.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (63.5-84.5) for men and 73.5 mL/min/1.73m2 (64.4-83.5) for women. ACR 30 mg/g or more was found in 1,741 participants (21.7%) and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 1,361 participants (16.9%).

    Conclusion: The Uonuma CKD cohort study was established to investigate the impact of lifestyle on CKD development and to provide data for preventing the onset and progression of CKD.

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  • Kaori Sakurada, Tsuneo Konta, Masafumi Watanabe, Kenichi Ishizawa, Yos ...
    Article ID: JE20180249
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 06, 2019

    Background: Positive and negative psychological factors are associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease. This study prospectively investigated associations between daily frequency of laughter, and mortality and cardiovascular disease in a community-based population.

    Methods: This study included 17,152 subjects ≥40 years old who participated in an annual health check in Yamagata Prefecture. Self-reported daily frequency of laughter was grouped into 3 categories (≥1/week; ≥1/month but <1/week; <1/month). Associations between daily frequency of laughter and increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence were determined using Cox proportional hazards modeling.

    Results: During follow-up (median, 5.4 years), 257 subjects died and 138 subjects experienced cardiovascular events. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence were significantly higher among subjects with a low frequency of laughter (log-rank P<0.01). Cox proportional hazard model analysis adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol drinking status showed that risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in subjects who laughed <1/month than in subjects who laughed ≥1/week (hazard ratio (HR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-3.09). Similarly, risk of cardiovascular events was higher in subjects who laughed ≥1/month but < 1/week than in subjects who laughed ≥1/week (HR 1.62, 95% CI, 1.07-2.40).

    Conclusion: Daily frequency of laughter represents an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in a Japanese general population.

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  • Mikiko Shibata, Kyoko Kogawa Sato, Shinichiro Uehara, Hideo Koh, Keiko ...
    Article ID: JE20180240
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2019

    Backgound: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase has been recognized as the risk factor of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and the risk of chronic kidney disease is not well known and no prospective studies have examined separately the relationship of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase with the risk of proteinuria versus that of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    Methods: We prospectively followed 9,341 Japanese men who did not have low eGFR, proteinuria, nor diabetes, and did not take antihypertensive medications at entry for the analysis of proteinuria, and 9,299 men for that of low eGFR. We defined “persistent proteinuria” if proteinuria was detected two or more times consecutively and persistently as ≥1+ on urine dipstick at the annual check-up until the end of follow-up. Low eGFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

    Results: During the 11-year observation period, 151 men developed persistent proteinuria and 1,276 men low eGFR. In multivariate models, the highest quartile (≥71 IU/L) of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase was independently related to the development of persistent proteinuria (hazard ratio 3.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-5.97) compared with the lowest quartile (≤25 IU/L). In joint analysis of alcohol consumption and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, non-drinkers with the highest tertile (≥58 IU/L) of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase had the highest risk of persistent proteinuria. However, there was no association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and low eGFR.

    Conclusion: In middle-aged Japanese men, elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase was independently associated with future persistent proteinuria, but not low eGFR.

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  • Aya Higashiyama, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Makoto Watanabe, Yoko Masukata Naka ...
    Article ID: JE20180251
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2019

    Background: Left atrial dimension (LAD) and other parameters on echocardiography have been reported to be associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, few studies have investigated the associations between echocardiographic parameters and the risk of AF in the Asian general population with a low AF incidence.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed in 1,424 individuals in the Suita study with echocardiographic parameters including LAD and no history of AF. After echocardiography, the participants were followed by 12-lead electrocardiography and questionnaires to detect AF incidence. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of echocardiographic parameters for AF incidence were estimated after adjustment for the risk factors of the AF risk score.

    Results: During the median 6.0-years of follow-up, 31 AF cases occurred. The multivariable-adjusted HR of a 1-mm increase in LAD for AF was 1.18 (95%CI: 1.08-1.28). The multivariable-adjusted HR for AF of a 1-SD-increase in LAD was higher than that of left ventricular internal dimensions in diastole, left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, and percent fractional shortening, and it was the only significant factor. In 667 participants with both LAD and LA volume (LAV) measurements, LAD and LAV were independently associated with the risk of AF incidence.

    Conclusions: LAD on echocardiography was an independent risk factor of incident AF in the Japanese population. LAD might be useful for identifying individuals with a high risk of AF in health check-ups of the general population.

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  • Yuko Kachi, Tsuguhiko Kato, Ichiro Kawachi
    Article ID: JE20180216
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2019

    Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that high-quality early childhood education and care may be an effective way of promoting children’s optimal health and development, especially for the most disadvantaged. However, socially disadvantaged families are less likely to enroll children in center-based childcare. In this study, we explored characteristics associated with use of center-based childcare among Japanese families.

    Methods: We used data from two Japanese birth cohorts in 2001 (n=17,019) and 2010 (n=24,333). Enrollment in center-based childcare was assessed at the ages of three and four years in the 2001 cohort and at the age of three in the 2010 cohort. Logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results: Children in the lowest quintile of household income were 1.54 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.98) times more likely to not receive center-based childcare than those in the highest-income quartile at the age of four in the 2001 cohort. Other socio-economic disadvantage (mother’s low education, non-Japanese parent, and higher number of siblings) and child’s health and developmental problems (preterm birth, congenital diseases, and developmental delay) were also associated with the non-use of center-based childcare at the age of three in the 2001 and 2010 cohorts.

    Conclusions: An inverse care law operates in the use of early childhood education, i.e. children with the least need enjoy the highest access. Children with socio-economic, health, and developmental disadvantages are at a greater risk of not receiving early childhood education and care. Social policies to promote equal access to early childhood education are needed to reduce future socio-economic inequalities.

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  • Ryosuke Fujii, Hiroya Yamada, Eiji Munetsuna, Mirai Yamazaki, Koji Oha ...
    Article ID: JE20180233
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2019

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the development of various diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although previous studies in clinically severe patients have investigated associations between CKD and miRNAs with particular attention on renal fibrosis, relationships in a general population have yet to be established. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between expression level of circulating miRNAs and CKD in a middle-aged Japanese population.

    Methods: A final total of 513 individuals (216 men, 297 women) who participated in the health check-up program in 2012 were included in our analysis. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine expression levels of 22 miRNAs. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated based on serum creatinine level, sex, and age. Participants with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined as having CKD.

    Results: Three different miRNAs (miR-17, miR-21, and miR-150) showed significant correlations with eGFR after Bonferroni correction and were selected for further analyses. Expression levels of three miRNAs were positively associated with eGFR after adjusting for potential confounders (p = 0.004, 0.002, and 0.004, respectively). Logistic regression analyses showed significantly lower odds ratios for CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in the highest tertile of all three miRNAs (miR-17, miR-21, and miR-150) compared with the lowest tertile (p = 0.003, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively).

    Conclusions: We found three circulating miRNAs were significantly associated with CKD in a general Japanese population, which suggested that these miRNAs may be a biomarker for CKD among general adults.

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  • Xing-Bing Pan, Hui-Jun Wang, Bing Zhang, Ying-Li Liu, Su-Fen Qi, Qing- ...
    Article ID: JE20180223
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2019

    Background: The prevalence of overweight was increasing dramatically worldwide. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of plain water intake (PWI) with the risk of new-onset overweight risk among Chinese adults.

    Methods: A total of 3200 adults aged 18–65 who were free of overweight at baseline were enrolled from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort study in 2006-2011. The risk of new-onset overweight with different amounts of PWI per day was analyzed in this five-year cohort. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the association of PWI and the risk of new-onset overweight and adjust for potential confounders. Moreover, dose-response models were developed to estimate the linear relationship.

    Results: During 5 years of follow-up, 1018 incident cases were identified. Our analysis indicated an inverse association of more than 4 cups of PWI per day and the risk of new-onset overweight among normal weight individuals. Compared with participants who drank 2 to 3 cups PWI, the adjusted odds ratios (OR) of overweight were 0.741 (95% CI, 0.599-0.916) in participants who drank 4 to 5 cups PWI, and 0.547 (95% CI, 0.435-0.687) in participants who drank more than 6 cups PWI. The dose–response analysis showed that every cup of PWI was associated with a 6.5% and 8.4% decrease in the risk of new-onset overweight among men and women, respectively. The interactions of PWI and covariates on the risk of overweight were not found.

    Conclusion: Drinking more than 4 cups (≈1 liter) per day of plain water is associated to decrease the risk of new-onset overweight among normal weight individuals.

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  • Hitomi Okubo, Tetsuji Yokoyama
    Article ID: JE20180176
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2019

    Background: The National Nutrition Survey on Preschool Children, Japan (NNSPC) provide fundamental information for policy making for child nutrition. However, the response rate and background characteristics of subjects are unclear. Here, we examined response rate and sociodemographic factors related with response to the survey, and evaluated the magnitude of bias due to selective response in the survey estimates of the NNSPC.

    Methods: This study was based on two national surveys conducted in 2015: the NNSPC and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC). Because potential survey participants of the NNSPC were children aged <6 years and their households that answered the CSLC, we examined response rates and respondent characteristics by linking the data of the NNSPC and CSLC. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with response. Potential bias caused by non-response in the survey estimates was examined after considering missingness through multiple imputation.

    Results: Among the 5343 children who participated in the CSLC, 3426 children responded to the NNSPC (response rate = 64.1%). Variables associated with response were living in a smaller city, a large number of children, three-generation family structure, older maternal age, and a non-working mother. The prevalence of overweight was underestimated by 20%, but the bias for almost all variables examined was small.

    Conclusions: Response to the survey varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Some bias, mostly small, was seen in survey estimates of the 2015 NNSPC. Further insight into the effect of selective response is important to assess associations between variables more precisely.

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  • Toshiki Fukasawa, Nanae Tanemura, Shinya Kimura, Hisashi Urushihara
    Article ID: JE20180192
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2019

    Background: The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare introduced Specific Health Checkups (SHC) to identify individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to describe the SHC database developed by the Japan Medical Data Center Co., Ltd. (JMDC) as a means of exploring lifestyle behaviors and lifestyle diseases among working generations.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of employees and their families using the JMDC-SHC database to describe the prevalence of lifestyle behaviors (smoking, exercise, dietary habits, drinking habits, and sleeping) and lifestyle diseases (MS, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus). Results were compared with data from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) in Japan as a benchmark.

    Results: All 646,869 enrollees in the JMDC-SHC database were included, of whom 66.5% were men. Age ranged from 40–74 years. Compared with the results of the NHNS, the JMDC-SHC subjects were younger and had fewer MS components and a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Subjects in their 40s were most likely to have unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in all age groups (eg, smoking: 41.0% in men and 10.2% in women). The SHC group had more favorable behaviors overall, but underweight was more prevalent in the SHC females.

    Conclusions: The JMDC-SHC population showed different lifestyle and lifestyle disease profiles to the NHNS population, probably due to its different age, gender, and employment distributions. Development of healthcare policies and plans for working generations would benefit from the selection of an age- and employment-appropriate database.

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  • Kimiko Tomioka, Norio Kurumatani, Keigo Saeki
    Article ID: JE20180195
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2019

    Background: Higher smoking prevalence in less educated persons and manual workers is well-known. This study examines the independent relationship of education and occupation with tobacco use.

    Methods: We used anonymized data from a nationwide population survey (30,617 men and 33,934 women). Education was divided into junior high school, high school, or university attainment. Occupation was grouped into upper non-manual, lower non-manual, and manual. Poisson regression models stratified by age and gender were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for current smoking.

    Results: After adjustment for covariates, education, and occupation, education was significantly related to current smoking in both genders; compared to university graduates, PRs (95% CIs) of junior high school graduates aged 20–39, 40–64, and ≥65 were 1.74 (1.53–1.98), 1.50 (1.36–1.65), and 1.28 (1.08–1.50) among men, and 3.54 (2.92–4.30), 2.72 (2.29–3.23), and 1.74 (1.14–2.66) among women, respectively. However, significantly higher smoking prevalence in manual than in upper non-manual was found only in men aged 20–64; compared to upper non-manual, the PRs (95% CIs) of manual workers aged 20–39, 40–64, and ≥65 were 1.11 (1.02–1.22), 1.18 (1.10–1.27), and 1.10 (0.89–1.37) among men, and 0.95 (0.75–1.20), 0.92 (0.75–1.12), and 0.46 (0.22–0.95) among women, respectively.

    Conclusions: Independent of occupation, educational disparities in smoking existed, regardless of age and gender. Occupation-smoking relationship varied with age and gender. Our study suggests that we should pay attention to social inequality in smoking as well as national smoking prevalence.

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  • Sachiko Ono, Yosuke Ono, Daisuke Koide, Hideo Yasunaga
    Article ID: JE20180224
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2019

    Background: Guidelines recommend against all codeine use in children for its common indications of analgesia and cough suppression because of uncertain benefits and potential risk of death. However, because of its rarity, the occurrence of severe respiratory depression associated with codeine-containing antitussives has been poorly investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between codeine-containing antitussives and severe respiratory depression in children.

    Methods: We retrospectively identified Japanese children who were prescribed antitussives for respiratory diseases from a large Japanese administrative claims database (JMDC, Tokyo, Japan). We collected data on baseline characteristics including age, sex, and comorbidity. Each case was matched with four controls with the same sex and age in the same year from the same type of medical institution. We then examined the association between codeine-containing antitussives and subsequent severe respiratory depression using a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Of 164,047 children, 18,210 (11.1%) were prescribed codeine-containing antitussives. Of the children who took codeine-containing drugs, seven experienced severe respiratory depression. After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no significant difference in the proportion of severe respiratory depression between children with and without codeine-containing antitussives (odds ratio: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.48 - 2.78).

    Conclusion: Occurrence of respiratory depression was very rare, and the association of codeine with respiratory depression was insignificant, even in a large sample of children in Japan.

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  • Yunqing Yang, Atsushi Hozawa, Mana Kogure, Akira Narita, Takumi Hirata ...
    Article ID: JE20180156
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 09, 2019

    Background: It has been reported that chronic inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of several serious diseases and could be modulated by diet. Recently, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) was developed to assess the inflammatory potential of the overall diet. The DII has been reported as relevant to various diseases but has not been validated in Japanese. Thus in the present study, we analyzed the relationship between DII scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a Japanese population.

    Methods: Data of the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged 2010 (NIPPON DATA2010), which contained 2898 participants who aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan (NHNS2010), were analyzed. Nutrient intakes derived from one-day semi-weighing dietary records were used to calculate DII scores. Energy was adjusted by residual method. Levels of hs-CRP were evaluated using nephelometric immunoassay. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed.

    Result: After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, BMI and physical activity, a significant association was observed between DII scores and log(CRP+1) (standard regression coefficient=0.05, p<0.01). And although it was not statistically significant, the positive association was consistently observed in almost all age-sex subgroups and the non-smoker subgroup.

    Conclusions: The current study confirmed that DII score was positively associated with hs-CRP in Japanese.

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  • Yui Yamaoka, Takeo Fujiwara, Yoshihisa Fujino, Shinya Matsuda, Kiyohid ...
    Article ID: JE20180094
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 02, 2019

    Background: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of fatal maltreatment among young children. The incidence of AHT in Japan, however, remains unknown. This study examined the incidence and distribution of age in months among young children under 12 months old hospitalized with intracranial injury in Japan.

    Methods: We conducted multicenter cross-sectional study for children under 36 months old admitted with intracranial injury to hospitals that employed the Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) payment system between 2010 and 2013. Presumptive and possible AHT were defined by the combination of ICD-10 codes modified from the coding system recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Results: The average incidence was 7.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.18-7.26) for presumptive and 41.7 (95% CI: 41.7-41.8) for possible AHT per 100,000 children less than 12 months old from 2010 to 2013. The distributions of age in months for both presumptive AHT and possible AHT had peaks at around two and eight months.

    Conclusions: This is the first study to report the incidence of hospitalized children with presumptive and possible AHT using population-based data. Further datasets are needed to evaluate the incidence and specific preventive strategies to prevent AHT in infants during the months of highest risk.

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  • Norie Sawada, Motoki Iwasaki, Taiki Yamaji, Atsushi Goto, Taichi Shima ...
    Article ID: JE20180182
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 02, 2019

    Background: Lifestyle and life-environment factors have undergone drastic changes in Japan over the last few decades. Further, many molecular epidemiologic studies have reported that genetic, epigenetic, and other biomarker information may be useful in predicting individual disease risk.

    Methods: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) was launched in 2011 to identify risk factors for lifestyle-related disease, elucidate factors that extend healthy life expectancy, and contribute toward personalized healthcare based on our more than 20 years’ experience with the JPHC Study. From 2011 through 2016, a baseline survey was conducted at 16 municipalities in seven prefectures across the country. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all registered residents aged 40–74, which mainly asked about lifestyle factors, such as socio-demographic situation, personal medical history, smoking, alcohol and dietary habits. We obtained informed consent from each participant to participate in this long follow-up study of at least 20 years, including consent to the potential use of their residence registry, medical records, medical fee receipts, care insurance etc., and to the provision of biospecimens (blood and urine), including genomic analysis.

    Results: As of December 31, 2016, we have established a population-based cohort of 115,385 persons (Response rate 44.1%), among whom 55,278 (47.9% of participants) have provided blood and urine samples. The participation rate was slightly higher among females and in the older age group.

    Conclusion: We have established a large-scale population-based cohort for next-generation epidemiological study in Japan.

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  • Takamasa Komiyama, Takashi Ohi, Yasutake Tomata, Fumiya Tanji, Ichiro ...
    Article ID: JE20180203
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2019

    Background: A growing number of epidemiology studies have shown that poor oral health is associated with an increased incidence of functional disability. However, there are few studies in which the confounding bias is adjusted appropriately. In this study, we examined whether dental status is associated with functional disability in elderly Japanese using a 13-year prospective cohort study after elimination of confounding factors with propensity score matching.

    Methods: Participants were community-dwelling Japanese aged 70 years or older who lived in the Tsurugaya district of Sendai (n = 838). The number of remaining teeth (over 20 teeth vs 0–19 teeth) was defined as the exposure variable. The outcome was the incidence of functional disability, defined as the first certification of long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Japan. The variables that were used to determine propensity score matching were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), medical history (stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, cancer, and diabetes), smoking, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, depression symptoms, cognitive impairment, physical function, social support, and marital status.

    Results: As a result of the propensity score matching, 574 participants were selected. Participants with 0–19 teeth were more likely to develop functional disability than those with 20 or more teeth (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.75).

    Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study targeting community-dwelling older adults in Japan, having less than 20 teeth was confirmed to be an independent risk factor for functional disability even after conducting propensity score matching. This study supports previous publications showing that oral health is associated with functional disability.

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  • Atsushi Miyawaki, Yasuki Kobayashi, Ichiro Kawachi
    Article ID: JE20180198
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 19, 2019

    Background: The association of sensory loss with mortality remains unclear. We aimed to explore the associations of hearing loss (HL), visual loss (VL), and dual sensory loss (DSL) with survival.

    Methods: Data came from the Komo-Ise study cohort in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, where the community-dwelling residents aged 40–69 years were followed up from 1993 to 2010. We analyzed 9,522 individuals who answered the follow-up questionnaires in 2000 (average age 64 [range, 47 to 77] years in 2000). The primary exposures were “HL only,” “VL only,” or “DSL”, with “no HL/VL” as the reference. These sensory loss statuses were assessed by asking the difficulty in hearing conversation or reading newspaper even with aids in the follow-up questionnaires in 2000. All-cause and cause-specific mortality were ascertained from linkage to death certificate data. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for confounders, including demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and health status, were used. Potential mediators (depression, walking disability, and social participation) were additionally adjusted for.

    Results: There were 1,105 deaths over the 10-year follow-up. After adjustment for the potential confounders, HL and DSL were associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratios of 1.74 [95% CI, 1.18–2.57] and 1.63 [95% CI, 1.09–2.42], respectively). Potential mediators explained a modest portion of the association. As for cause-specific mortality, HL was associated with increased cancer mortality, while VL and DSL were associated with increased cardiovascular disease mortality.

    Conclusions: Self-reported HL and DSL may be risk factors of mortality among middle-aged or elderly Japanese populations.

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  • Mayumi Tsuji, Chihaya Koriyama, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Megumi Yamamoto, Ki ...
    Article ID: JE20180098
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 12, 2019

    Background: Metal exposures could possibly affect allergic responses in pregnant women, although no studies have yet shown a clear relationship between the two, and such exposures might also affect the development of allergic diseases in children.

    Methods: We investigated the relationship between metal concentrations in whole blood and immunoglobulin E (IgE; total and specific) in 14,408 pregnant women who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The subjects submitted self-administered questionnaires, and blood samples were collected from them twice, specifically, during the first trimester and again during the second/third trimester. Concentrations of the metals Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, and Mn, as well as serum total and allergen-specific IgEs for egg white, house dust-mites (HDM), Japanese cedar pollen (JCP), animal dander, and moth, were measured. Allergen-specific IgE(s) were divided based on concentrations <0.35 or ≥0.35 UA/mL, and the metal levels were divided into quartiles.

    Results: Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between HDM- and animal dander-specific IgEs and Hg and Mn concentrations. Conversely, there was a significant positive relationship between JCP-specific IgE and Hg and Se concentrations.

    Conclusions: Metal exposures may be related to both increases and decreases in allergen-specific IgEs in pregnant women.

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  • Masumi Okuda, Yingsong Lin, Katsuhiro Mabe, Mototsugu Kato, Takako Osa ...
    Article ID: JE20180119
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 12, 2019

    Objectives: Distributions of serum pepsinogen (PG) values were assessed in Helicobacter pylori-infected and non-infected junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) in Japan.

    Methods: All junior high school students (1,225 in total) in Sasayama city, who were basically healthy, were asked to provide urine and serum samples, which were used to measure urine and serum H. pylori antibodies using ELISA kits and PG values. The subjects, whose urine and serum antibodies were both positive, were considered H. pylori infected.

    Results: Of the 187 subjects who provided both urine and blood samples, 8 were infected, 4 had discrepant results, 4 had negative serum antibody titers no less than 3.0 U/ml, and 171 were non-infected. In the H. pylori non-infected subjects, the median PG I and PG II values and PG I to PG II ratio (PG I/II) were 40.8 ng/ml, 9.5 ng/ml and 4.4, respectively, whereas in the infected subjects, these values were 55.4 ng/ml, 17.0 ng/ml and 3.3, respectively, (each p<0.01). In the non-infected subjects, PG I and PG II were significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: The PG I and PG II values were higher, and the PG I/II was lower in H. pylori infected students than in non-infected students. In H. pylori non-infected students, males showed higher PG I and PG II values than females. The distributions of PG values in junior high school students differed from those in adults.

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  • Takahiro Yoshizaki, Junko Ishihara, Ayaka Kotemori, Junpei Yamamoto, Y ...
    Article ID: JE20180130
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 12, 2019

    Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of Okinawan vegetable consumption on the risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease. This study aimed to examine associations of vegetable, fruit, and Okinawan vegetable consumption with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease in the Japanese population of Okinawa.

    Methods: The study design was a prospective cohort study. During 1995–1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in two study areas to 16,498 participants aged 45–74 years. In 217,467 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2012, a total of 839 stroke cases and 197 coronary heart disease cases were identified.

    Results: No statistically significant association between total Okinawan vegetable consumption and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease was obtained: the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest tertile of consumption were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.93–1.29; P for trend = 0.289) in model 2. Total vegetable and fruit and specific Okinawan vegetable consumption were also not statistically significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular outcomes.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that consumption of total vegetable and fruit, total Okinawan vegetables, and specific Okinawan vegetables in Japanese residents of Okinawa was not associated with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease.

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  • Ling Zhou, Xin Zhao, Mulalibieke Heizhati, Suofeiya Abulikemu, Delian ...
    Article ID: JE20180018
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 22, 2018

    Background: To examine trends in serum lipids in population in Northwestern Xinjiang between 1998 and 2015 and to provide clues for future prevention.

    Methods: We enrolled 5,142 adults aged ≥30 years from seven independent cross-sectional studies conducted in 1998–2000, 2007–2008, and 2015. Blood lipid profiles, such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were measured.

    Results: The mean age was 48.5 years in 1998–2000, 47.9 years in 2007–2008, and 53.7 years in 2015. There was a declining trend in the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults in northwestern Xinjiang. Mean LDL-C decreased during the same period, while mean HDL-C showed the opposite trend. Mean TC was 4.79 mmol/L in 1998–2000, 5.17 mmol/L in 2007–2008, and 4.59 mmol/L in 2015. The trend of mean TG was similar to that of TC. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was closely related with male gender, Mongolian ethnicity, hypertension, obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, smoking, and drinking.

    Conclusion: Between 1998 and 2015, favorable trends in lipid levels have occurred among adults of Northwestern Xinjiang. However, further efforts are needed.

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  • Yuanying Li, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Hiroyasu Iso, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Isao S ...
    Article ID: JE20170298
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 15, 2018

    Background: The association of body mass index (BMI) with risks of ischemic stroke subtypes have not been established.

    Methods: Cumulative average BMI was calculated using self-reported body weight and height obtained from baseline (Cohort I in 1990, and Cohort II from 1993–1994) and 5- and 10-year questionnaire surveys of Japan Public Health Center-based prospective (JPHC) study. A total of 42,343 men and 46,413 women aged 40–69 years were followed-up for the incidence of lacunar, large-artery occlusive, and cardioembolic strokes. A sub-distribution hazard model was used to estimate sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    Results: During a median of 20.0 years of follow-up, we documented 809 and 481 lacunar, 395 and 218 large-artery occlusive, and 568 and 298 cardioembolic strokes in men and women, respectively. After adjustment for baseline age, updated smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, and histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, cumulative average BMI was positively linearly associated with lacunar (trend P = 0.007), large-artery occlusive (trend P = 0.002), and cardioembolic (trend P < 0.001) strokes in men, and with lacunar (trend P < 0.001) and large-artery occlusive (trend P = 0.003) strokes in women. There were approximately two-fold excess risk of cardioembolic stroke in both sexes and of lacunar and large-artery occlusive strokes in women for cumulative average BMI ≥30 kg/m2 compared to BMI 23–<25 kg/m2.

    Conclusion: Cumulative average BMI showed a positive linear effect on sub-distribution hazards of lacunar, large-artery occlusive, and cardioembolic strokes in both sexes, except for cardioembolic stroke in women.

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  • Aya Goto, Yusuke Tsugawa, Keiya Fujimori
    Article ID: JE20180015
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 15, 2018

    Background: Little is known about the association between the anxiety toward the effects of radiation on reproduction caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident and the birth rate of people in Fukushima. Therefore, we examined changes and associated factors of future pregnancy intention among mothers in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Methods: Using data from three postal surveys among women who registered their pregnancies in the prefecture (N = 6,751 in 2012, N = 6,871 in 2013, and N = 6,725 in 2014), we analyzed the factors associated with women’s intention of future pregnancy using multivariable logistic regression models.

    Results: The proportion of mothers with pregnancy intention increased from 53.5% in 2012 to 57.9% in 2014, especially among multiparas (P for trend <0.001). Factors inversely associated with pregnancy intention of both groups were older maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.92 for primipara and 0.87 for multipara), poor subjective health (aOR 0.75 and 0.81, respectively), and presence of depressive symptoms (aOR 0.71 and 0.79, respectively) (P < 0.01 for all items). In addition, not living with husband (aOR 0.24), dissatisfaction with obstetrical care (aOR 0.89) and child abnormalities (aOR 0.72) were inversely associated with pregnancy intention among primiparas, while receiving infertility treatment (aOR 2.05) was positively associated among multiparas (P < 0.01 for all items). A separate analysis of 2012 and 2013 data showed that concern about radiation contamination of breast milk was associated with pregnancy intention among primiparas (aOR 0.61, P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Mothers’ concern about radiation was associated with lower pregnancy intention, especially among primiparas. Providing quality obstetrical and mental health care and parenting support may be the keys to maintaining the temporal increase in fertility.

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  • Katsuyasu Kouda, Masayuki Iki, Yuki Fujita, Harunobu Nakamura, Kumiko ...
    Article ID: JE20180164
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 15, 2018

    Background: Current trends in serum lipid levels among children are likely to be important predictors of future cardiovascular disease prevalence. However, no studies have examined trends in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in Japanese children.

    Methods: We investigated trends in LDL-C levels from 2008 through 2017 and HDL-C levels from 2007 through 2017 in a population of 10- and 13-year-old children in Fukuroi City, Japan. We analyzed 17,838 children, accounting for 93.8% of all fifth and eighth graders in the entire city. Adverse lipid levels were defined as follows: 130 mg/dL or higher for LDL-C, and lower than 40 mg/dL for HDL-C. The Jonckheere-Terpstra and Cochran-Armitage tests were used to evaluate secular trends in mean serum lipid levels and prevalence of dyslipidemia, respectively.

    Results: There were no significant trends in BMI during the study period. In children aged 10 years, serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C showed significant positive associations with calendar year during the study period for both sexes. A significant increase in HDL-C levels was observed in girls aged 13 years. On the other hand, no significant trends were observed in the prevalence of high LDL-C or low HDL-C regardless of sex or age, while the prevalence of high non-HDL-C showed a significant increase in boys.

    Conclusions: In the Fukuroi population, serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C slightly increased in both boys and girls aged 10 years, and HDL-C levels slightly increased in girls aged 13 years, during the past decade.

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  • Yozo Hatabe, Mao Shibata, Tomoyuki Ohara, Emi Oishi, Daigo Yoshida, Ta ...
    Article ID: JE20180137
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 08, 2018

    Background: The association between decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life and dementia is unclear.

    Methods: Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 60 to 79 years (ie, individuals in late life; mean age, 68 years) were followed for 24 years (1988–2012) (n = 1,055); 835 of them had participated in a health examination in 1973–1974 (mean age, 53 years), and these earlier data were used for the midlife analysis. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, we estimated the risk conferred by a decline in handgrip strength over a 15-year period (1973–74 to 1988) from midlife to late life on the development of total dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) over the late-life follow-up period from 1988 to 2012.

    Results: During the follow-up, 368 subjects experienced total dementia. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of total dementia increased significantly with greater decline in handgrip strength (increased or unchanged handgrip strength [≥+0%] 25.1, mildly decreased [−14 to −1%] 28.4, and severely decreased [≤−15%] 38.9 per 1,000 person-years). A greater decline in handgrip strength was significantly associated with higher risk of total dementia after adjusting for potential confounding factors; subjects with severely decreased handgrip strength had 1.51-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.99, P < 0.01) increased risk of total dementia compared to those with increased or unchanged handgrip strength. Similar significant findings were observed for AD, but not for VaD.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a greater decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life is an important indicator for late-life onset of dementia.

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  • Ryota Sakurai, Hisashi Kawai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Susumu Ogawa, Hunkyung ...
    Article ID: JE20180162
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 08, 2018

    Background: Considering the rate of growth of the older population in several countries, accidental falls in older cyclists are expected to increase. However, the prevalence and correlates of bicycle-related falls (BR-falls) are unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the characteristics of BR-falls, focusing on the risk factors.

    Methods: Seven-hundred and ninety-one older adults participated in a comprehensive baseline assessment that included questions on bicycle use, BR-falls, lifestyle, and physical and cognitive evaluations. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month. The incidence of BR-falls in participants who did not report BR-falls at baseline was again ascertained 3 years later. Logistic regression analyses examined the predictors of BR-falls incidence.

    Results: At baseline, 395 older adults were cyclists and 45 (11.4%) of them had experienced BR-falls. Adjusted regression analysis showed that slower gait velocity, shorter one-leg standing time, and experience of falls (ie, non-BR-falls) were associated with BR-falls. Among the 214 cyclists who did not report BR-falls at baseline and who participated in both baseline and follow-up assessments, 35 (16.4%) cyclists experienced BR-falls during the 3-year follow-up. Adjusted regression analysis revealed that higher body mass index and non-BR-falls were predictors of future incidence of BR-falls, independent of physical function.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that experience of falls, irrespective of bicycling, is an independent correlate and risk factor of BR-falls. This suggests that experience of falls and BR-falls may share the same risk factors.

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  • Miwa Yamaguchi, Yosuke Inoue, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Masashige Saito, Dai ...
    Article ID: JE20180078
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 24, 2018

    Background: This study aimed to examine the contextual effects of community-level social capital on the onset of depressive symptoms using a longitudinal study design.

    Methods: We used questionnaire data from the 2010 and 2013 waves of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study that included 14,465 men and 14,600 women aged over 65 years from 295 communities. We also used data of a three-wave panel (2006–2010–2013) to test the robustness of the findings (n = 7,424). Using sex-stratified multilevel logistic regression, we investigated the lagged associations between three scales of baseline community social capital and the development of depressive symptoms.

    Results: Community civic participation was inversely associated with the onset of depressive symptoms (men: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88–0.99 and women: AOR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88–0.997 per 1 standard deviation unit change in the score), while no such association was found in relation to the other two scales on social cohesion and reciprocity. This association was attenuated by the adjustment of individual responses to the civic participation component. Individual-level scores corresponding to all three community social capital components were significantly associated with lower risks for depressive symptoms. The results using the three-wave data set showed statistically less clear but similar associations.

    Conclusions: Promoting environment and services enhancing to community group participation might help mitigate the impact of late-life depression in an aging society.

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  • Truong-Minh Pham, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Yoshihisa Fujino, Naohiro Fujimoto, ...
    Article ID: JE20180140
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 24, 2018

    Background: In the present study, we examined the trends of premature mortality due to kidney and bladder cancers among the Japanese population from 1980 through 2010.

    Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Years of life lost (YLL) was estimated using Japanese life tables. Average lifespan shortened (ALSS) was calculated and defined as the ratio of years of life lost relative to the expected lifespan.

    Results: Over the study period, the age-standardized rates to the World Standard Population for deaths from kidney and bladder cancers were stable. The average years of life lost (AYLL) measure shows decreases of about 4 and 6 years of life for kidney cancer in men and women, respectively, and decreases of about 2 years of life for bladder cancer in both sexes. The ALSS shows that patients with kidney cancer lost 21.0% and 24.7% of their lifespan among men and women in 1980, whereas respective losses were 15.3% and 15.8% in 2010. Also, patients with bladder cancer on average lost 13.5% in men and 14.2% in women in 1980 and 10.8% in men and 11.1% in women in 2010.

    Conclusions: Our study shows favorable trends in premature mortality for kidney and bladder cancers in Japan over a 30-year period; however, patients with bladder cancer on average lost a smaller proportion of their lifespan compared to those with kidney cancer. The development of a novel ALSS measure is convenient in examination of the burden of premature mortality over time.

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  • Yuiko Nagamine, Naoki Kondo, Kenichi Yokobayashi, Asami Ota, Yasuhiro ...
    Article ID: JE20170206
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 17, 2018

    Background: Studies on sex-specific socioeconomic gradients in objectively evaluated diabetes among older adults are scarce.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data of 9,893 adults aged 65 years and older in Aichi Prefecture without long-term care insurance from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) in 2010 (Response rate: 66.3%). We collected demographic, socioeconomic (income, years of education, and longest occupation) and behavioral information using a mail-in self-reported survey. Blood samples for the objectively evaluated diabetes and self-reported medical history were collected at annual municipal health checkups. Poisson regression analysis stratified by sex with multiple imputations was conducted to calculate prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval.

    Results: A clear income gradient in diabetes prevalence was observed among women, from 11.7% in the lowest income quartile (Q1) to 7.8% in the highest (Q4). Among men, the findings were 17.6% in Q1 to 15.1% in Q4. The prevalence ratios for diabetes with incomes Q1 to Q4 were 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.90) for women and 1.16 (95% CI, 0.90–1.50) for men after adjusting for age and other socioeconomic factors. Even after adjusting for marital status, body mass index, other metabolic risk factors, and lifestyle factors, the income-based gradient remained among women. Education and occupation were not significantly associated with diabetes in the study population.

    Conclusions: Only women showed an income-based gradient in diabetes. Monitoring income gradient in diabetes is important in public health actions, even in older populations. Future longitudinal and intervention studies should evaluate the causal link of income to diabetes onset, determine the mechanisms of the potential sex differences in the income/diabetes association, and identify ways to mitigate the income-based inequality.

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  • Yuri Yokoyama, Akihiko Kitamura, Mariko Nishi, Satoshi Seino, Yu Tanig ...
    Article ID: JE20180076
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 17, 2018

    Background: Although meals that combine a staple food, main dish, and side dish (balanced meals) are recommended in Japan, the health effects of such meals are unclear. We investigated the association of frequency of eating balanced meals with frailty among community-dwelling older Japanese.

    Methods: We analyzed data from 912 persons aged 65 years or older who participated in the Hatoyama Cohort Study or Kusatsu Longitudinal Study. The frequency of eating two or more balanced meals daily was self-reported as ≤1 day/week, 2 or 3 days/week, 4 or 5 days/week, and daily. Frailty was defined as the presence of at least three, and pre-frailty as the presence of one or two, of the following criteria: weight loss, muscle weakness, exhaustion, slowness, and low physical activity. Adjusted logistic regression was used to study associations of frequency of balanced-meal consumption with frailty (prefrailty and frailty combined) and frailty criteria.

    Results: Participants reporting a frequency of balanced-meal consumption of ≤2 or 3 days/week had a higher prevalence of frailty (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–2.64) than did those reporting a frequency of daily. Lower frequency of balanced-meal consumption was also associated with higher prevalences of weight loss (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.90–8.85), exhaustion (OR, 6.35; 95% CI, 2.49–16.17), and low physical activity (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22–3.01).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that more frequent twice daily consumption of meals with a staple food, main dish, and side dish decreases the risks of prefrailty and frailty.

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  • Isao Oze, Hidemi Ito, Yoshikazu Nishino, Masakazu Hattori, Tomio Nakay ...
    Article ID: JE20180112
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 17, 2018

    Background: Lung cancers are classified into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer due to their different treatment and prognosis. Although many studies have reported the specific survival of SCLC patients treated at cancer hospitals, survival from population-based data has rarely been reported.

    Methods: We analyzed survival of SCLC cases diagnosed from 1993 through 2006 from a population-based cancer registry of six prefectures. To assess trends in SCLC survival, we defined three periods that mirrored developments in SCLC treatment: period 1, 1993–1998; period 2, 1999–2001; and period 3, 2002–2006. Assessments were based on relative survival (RS), excess hazard, and conditional survival.

    Results: A total of 10,911 SCLC patients were analyzed. Five-year RS among limited disease SCLC (LD-SCLC) in periods 1 to 3 was 16.8%, 21.1%, and 21.4%, respectively. Five-year RS among extensive disease SCLC (ED-SCLC) in periods 1 to 3 was 2.3%, 2.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. Improvement in 5-year RS in periods 2 and 3 compared with period 1 was significant among both LD- and ED-SCLC patients (all P < 0.001). Conditional 5-year RS of LD-SCLC increased from 21% at year 0 to 73% at year 5, while that of ED-SCLC was 3% at year 0 and 53% at year 5.

    Conclusions: The prognosis of SCLC patients improved from 1999–2001 but plateaued in 2002–2006, after which no further significant improvement was seen. Continuous survey based on population-based data is helpful in monitoring the impact of developments in treatment.

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  • Naomi Mitsuda, Masamitsu Eitoku, Nagamasa Maeda, Mikiya Fujieda, Naruf ...
    Article ID: JE20180059
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 10, 2018

    Background: Some studies have indicated that female birth and multiple births were risk factors for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The results, however, were conflicting. Our study was conducted to evaluate the association of maternal NVP with fetal sex in singleton and twin pregnancies.

    Methods: We used the data set from a birth cohort study, the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). In the self-administered questionnaire, participants were asked whether they experienced NVP prior to 12 gestational weeks. Main outcome measures were the presence of NVP and severity of NVP. We estimated the association of fetal sex and birth plurality with NVP using logistic regression analysis, followed by interaction analysis.

    Results: Of 91,666 women, 75,828 (82.7%) experienced at least some symptoms of NVP and 10,159 (11.1%) experienced severe NVP. Women with female pregnancies and twin pregnancies had higher odds for the presence of NVP and severe NVP compared to women with male pregnancies and singleton pregnancies, respectively. Moreover, of mothers with twin pregnancies, higher odds for the presence of NVP and severe NVP were reported when one or both infants were female, compared to those in which both infants were male. There was no significant interaction between fetal sex and birth plurality.

    Conclusions: Female sex birth and multiple births are risk factors for the presence of NVP, and especially for severe NVP without interaction. These findings suggest that a factor abundant in the female fetus associates with the severity of NVP.

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  • Maria Takechi, Wakaba Fukushima, Takashi Nakano, Miki Inui, Satoko Ohf ...
    Article ID: JE20180060
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 10, 2018

    Background: Severe pediatric cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), and associated complications caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection have brought substantial public health impact in Asia. This study aimed to elucidate the epidemiology of these pediatric cases in Japan.

    Methods: A nationwide survey was conducted using stratified random sampling of hospital pediatric departments. We estimated the number of inpatients with HFMD, HA, and associated complications between April 1 and September 30, 2010, during which EV71 was circulating predominantly. Factors associated with severe cases with ≥7 days of admission, sequelae, or outcome of death were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.

    Results: During the 6-month epidemic period, the number of pediatric inpatients aged <15 years was about 2,900 (estimated cumulative incidence of hospitalized cases: 17.0 per 100,000 population). Severe cases were significantly associated with younger age. Compared to patients ≥5 years of age, the odds ratios (ORs) for <1 year of age and 1 to <3 years of age were 5.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14–15.4) and 2.94 (95% CI, 1.02–8.51), respectively. Elevated ORs for hyperglycemia (plasma glucose level of ≥8.3 mmol/L) on admission (OR 3.60; 95% CI, 0.94–13.8) were also observed.

    Conclusions: Disease burden of pediatric inpatients with HFMD, HA, and associated complications in Japan was described for the first time. During an EV71 epidemic, younger age and, suggestively, hyperglycemia may have been critical factors requiring more careful treatment.

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  • Kotaro Ozasa, Wakaba Fukushima
    Article ID: JE20180177
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 10, 2018
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  • Atsushi Hozawa, Takumi Hirata, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Yoshitaka Murakami, Sh ...
    Article ID: JE20180124
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 03, 2018

    Background: We sought to investigate the optimal values of BMI for the lowest risk of all-cause death and whether the optimal BMI differs according to smoking status in large-scale pooled analysis of 13 Japanese cohorts.

    Methods: Data from 179,987 participants of 13 well-qualified cohort studies conducted throughout Japan were used for our analysis. A cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used. P values for interactions were calculated based on the cross product of BMI and age, sex, or smoking status.

    Results: In the entire study population, all-cause mortality risk was lowest when the BMI was 22.0–24.9 kg/m2. This was also the case for selected healthy participants (never smoked, baseline total cholesterol level ≥4.1 mmol/L; the first 5 years of follow-up data were excluded). No effect modification of age, sex, or smoking status was observed. Regardless of their BMI, never smokers always had a lower all-cause mortality risk than did current smokers even with an ideal BMI in terms of mortality risk.

    Conclusion: A BMI of 22–24.9 kg/m2 correlated with the lowest risk of mortality, regardless of whether all participants or selected healthy participants were analyzed. The fact that smoking was more strongly associated with mortality than obesity emphasizes the urgency for effective anti-smoking programs.

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  • Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Kaori Ishii, Rina Miyawaki, Shigeru Inoue, T ...
    Article ID: JE20180041
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2018

    Background: Prolonged periods of sitting time can be adversely associated with older adults’ well-being and functional capacities. Understanding patterns and contexts of sedentary behaviors (SB) can inform approaches to prevention. This study examined Japanese older adults’ objectively-assessed patterns and reported domains of SB and their interrelationships.

    Methods: Participants (n = 297; aged 65–84 years) of this cross-sectional study wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a survey. Five measures related to SB patterns were identified from the accelerometer data. SB from six domains, socio-demographics, and chronic conditions were identified from the survey data. Relative contributions of six domains to objectively-measured prolonged sedentary time (≥30 minutes) and the number of breaks were examined in a series of multivariate linear regressions. Covariates were socio-demographics, chronic conditions, and accelerometer wear time.

    Results: On average, participants spent 8.8 hours a day sedentary (58% of accelerometer wear time), with 7.6 breaks per sedentary hour, and 3.7 hours a day through prolonged sedentary bouts (4.4 time/day). The proportions of time in the SB domains were 9.4% for car, 4.0% for public transport, 6.1% for work, 45.5% for television (TV) viewing, 9.8% for computer use, and 25.1% for other leisure. Domains of SB that contributed significantly to longer sedentary time through prolonged bouts were TV viewing and computer use. TV viewing was also associated with a lesser number of breaks.

    Conclusions: For Japanese older adults, initiatives to address SB could focus on breaking-up prolonged periods of SB by encouraging more frequent breaks, especially during TV viewing.

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  • Takehiro Michikawa, Kayo Ueda, Akinori Takami, Seiji Sugata, Ayako Yos ...
    Article ID: JE20180122
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2018

    Background: From around 2012, the use of automated equipment for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurement with equivalence to a reference method has become popular nationwide in Japan. This enabled us to perform a national health effect assessment employing PM2.5 concentrations based on the standardized measurement method. We evaluated the association between non-accidental mortality and short-term exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particulate matter (PM), with the latter estimated as the difference between suspended particulate matter and PM2.5, for the fiscal years 2012–2014.

    Methods: This was a time-stratified case-crossover study in 100 highly-populated Japanese cities. Mortality data was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. City-specific estimates of PM-mortality association were calculated by applying a conditional logistic regression analysis, and combined with a random-effects meta-analysis.

    Results: The respective averages of daily mean concentration were 14.6 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 6.4 µg/m3 for coarse PM. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations for the average of the day of death and the previous day was associated with an increase of 1.3% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9–1.6%) in total non-accidental mortality. For cause-specific mortality, PM2.5 was positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. After adjustment for PM2.5, we observed a 1.4% (95% CI, 0.2–2.6%) increase in total mortality with a 10 µg/m3 increase in coarse PM.

    Conclusion: The study revealed that short-term exposure to PM2.5 had adverse effects on total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in Japan. Coarse PM exposure also increased the risk of total mortality.

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  • Akio Yagi, Shinya Hayasaka, Toshiyuki Ojima, Yuri Sasaki, Taishi Tsuji ...
    Article ID: JE20180123
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2018

    Background: While bathing styles vary among countries, most Japanese people prefer tub bathing to showers and saunas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between tub bathing and health outcomes. Accordingly, in this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between tub bathing frequency and the onset of functional disability among older people in Japan.

    Methods: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The baseline survey was conducted from August 2010 through January 2012 and enrolled 13,786 community-dwelling older people (6,482 men and 7,304 women) independent in activities of daily living. During a 3-year observation period, the onset of functional disability, identified by new certification for need of Long-Term Care Insurance, was recorded. Tub bathing frequencies in summer and winter at baseline were divided into three groups: low frequency (0–2 times/week), moderate frequency (3–6 times/week), and high frequency (≥7 times/week). We estimated the risks of functional disability in each group using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.

    Results: Functional disability was observed in a total of 1,203 cases (8.7%). Compared with the low-frequency group and after adjustment for 14 potential confounders, the hazard ratios of the moderate- and high-frequency groups were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75–1.10) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.85) for summer and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76–1.07) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.60–0.84) for winter.

    Conclusion: High tub bathing frequency is associated with lower onset of functional disability. Therefore, tub bathing might be beneficial for older people’s health.

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  • Ryoma Michishita, Takuro Matsuda, Shotaro Kawakami, Satoshi Tanaka, Ak ...
    Article ID: JE20170304
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between long-term body weight gain after maturity and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods: The participants were 303 men without a history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, kidney dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their body weight gain after maturity was examined using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into two groups based on the presence/absence of a body weight gain of ≥10 kg since 20 years of age.

    Results: After a 6-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD was significantly higher in participants with a body weight gain of ≥10 kg than in participants without body weight a body weight gain of ≥10 kg since 20 years of age (log-rank test: P = 0.041). After adjusting for the age, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, smoking and drinking habits, and the presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia at baseline, the normal body weight participants with a body weight gain of ≥10 kg since 20 years of age was significantly related to the incidence of CKD (hazard ratio 2.47; 95% confidence of interval, 1.02–6.01, P = 0.045).

    Conclusions: These results suggest that long-term body weight gain after maturity in normal body weight participants may be associated with the incidence of CKD, independent of current body weight.

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  • Hiroshi Murayama, Mika Sugiyama, Hiroki Inagaki, Chiaki Ura, Fumiko Mi ...
    Article ID: JE20180002
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: Despite increasing evidence of an association between childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and cognitive outcomes, such as dementia and cognitive decline, in Western countries, there are no studies on this association from non-Western societies. We investigated the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective symptoms of dementia among community-dwelling older Japanese people and examined age and sex variations in this association.

    Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey for all community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over in Adachi, Tokyo (n = 132,005). We assessed subjective dementia symptoms using a self-administered dementia checklist, which was validated by comparison with the Clinical Dementia Rating scale.

    Results: Data from 75,358 questionnaires were analyzed. After adjusting for potential covariates, lower childhood SES was associated with greater likelihood of subjective dementia symptoms. We found a significant interaction between childhood SES and age on subjective dementia symptoms but no interaction between childhood SES and sex. Age-stratified analysis indicated that the association between lower childhood SES and subjective dementia symptoms was stronger in the ≥75 years subgroup than in the 65–74 years subgroup, indicating an effect modification of age on this association.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggested that low SES in childhood might have a long-term influence on dementia symptoms in late life and that this influence varied by age. This differential association might be explained by the social and historical context in Japan (ie, World War II, postwar chaos, and high economic growth) that has shaped participants’ early experiences.

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  • Chisato Nagata, Keiko Wada, Yukari Sahashi, Takashi Tamura, Kie Konish ...
    Article ID: JE20180005
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: The early life environment is now recognized as a key factor contributing to susceptibility to certain diseases in later life.

    Methods: We initiated a cohort study among school children in 2011 to primarily investigate the associations between lifestyle and environmental factors and some surrogate markers of chronic diseases, such as cardiometabolic risk factors (ie, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, insulin, or lipids) and cancer risk factors (ie, height and age at menarche). A baseline questionnaire asked for information, including demographic variables, medical history and use of medication, dietary habits, physical activity, sleep habits, and behavioral and emotional problems of children. Follow-up surveys are planned for the fourth grade of elementary school and the first grade of junior high school. At these follow-up surveys, fasting blood samples will be obtained to measure cardiometabolic markers. We also checked the validity of a food frequency questionnaire, which was originally created for 6-year-olds but was modified for use in older children.

    Results: A total of 3,141 first-year students at elementary schools in Hekinan City, Aichi Prefecture, participated in the study. The response rate was 87.4%. The means of age and body mass index were 6.99 (standard deviation, 0.28) years and 15.3 (standard deviation, 1.7) kg/m2, respectively, in the 3,067 Japanese children (1,639 boys and 1,428 girls).

    Conclusions: This cohort will reveal determinants of cardiometabolic risk factors and cancer risk factors during childhood.

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  • Aya Fujiwara, Kentaro Murakami, Keiko Asakura, Ken Uechi, Minami Sugim ...
    Article ID: JE20180036
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: The lack of comprehensive food composition databases for sugar contents in Japanese foods has led to the lack of nutritional epidemiologic studies on sugar intake in Japanese population. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association of free sugar intake estimated using a newly developed food composition database with the characteristics and lifestyles of Japanese children aged 3–6 years.

    Methods: The food composition database contained information on sugars in 2,222 commonly consumed Japanese foods. Using this database, we estimated the sugar (total, added, and free sugars) intakes derived from a 3-day weighed dietary record of 166 boys and 166 girls aged 3–6 years living in 24 prefectures in Japan.

    Results: The mean free sugar intake was 26.8 g/d (standard deviation [SD], 12.3 g/d), while the mean value for energy intake was 7.8% (SD, 3.2%). The prevalence of excessive free sugar intake (≥10% of energy intake) was 21.7%. Among the characteristics and lifestyles examined, screen time was most strongly associated with the prevalence of excessive free sugar intake: multivariate adjusted odds ratios for screen time <0.5, ≥0.5 to <1, and ≥1 h/d were 1.0 (reference), 3.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–13.98), and 4.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.16–16.35), respectively. Additionally, younger age, shorter sleep, and mothers with office work and service and sales jobs (compared with those with professional and managerial jobs) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of excessive free sugar intake.

    Conclusions: This study showed the sugar intake of Japanese children aged 3–6 years is positively associated with screen time.

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  • Robab Breyer-Kohansal, Sylvia Hartl, Otto Chris Burghuber, Matthias Ur ...
    Article ID: JE20180039
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: The Lung, hEart, sociAl, boDy (LEAD) Study (; NCT01727518; is a longitudinal, observational, population-based Austrian cohort that aims to investigate the relationship between genetic, environmental, social, developmental and ageing factors influencing respiratory health and comorbidities through life. The general working hypothesis of LEAD is the interaction of these genetic, environmental and socioeconomic factors influences lung development and ageing, the risk of occurrence of several non-communicable diseases (respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurologic), as well as their phenotypic (ie, clinical) presentation.

    Methods: LEAD invited from 2011–2016 a random sample (stratified by age, gender, residential area) of Vienna inhabitants (urban cohort) and all the inhabitants of six villages from Lower Austria (rural cohort). Participants will be followed-up every four years. A number of investigations and measurements were obtained in each of the four domains of the study (Lung, hEart, sociAl, boDy) including data to screen for lung, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, and cognitive function. Blood and urine samples are stored in a biobank for future investigations.

    Results: A total of 11.423 males (47.6%) and females (52.4%), aged 6–80 years have been included in the cohort. Compared to governmental statistics, the external validity of LEAD with respect to age, gender, citizenship, and smoking status was high.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the LEAD cohort has been established following high quality standards; it is representative of the Austrian population and offers a platform to understand lung development and ageing as a key mechanism of human health both in early and late adulthood.

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  • Joo-Young Lee, Eun-Song Lee, Gyung-Min Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Jeong-Woo Lee ...
    Article ID: JE20180052
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: Some previous studies reported hearing ability can be reduced by impaired masticatory ability, but there has been little evidence reported of an association between hearing loss and unilateral mastication. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between unilateral mastication (UM), estimated from individual functional tooth units (FTUs), and hearing loss in a representative sample of Korean adults.

    Methods: The analyzed data were obtained from 1,773 adults aged 40–89 years who participated in Korean national survey. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average of >25 dB at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in either ear. In each subject, UM was calculated as the difference in the sums of the FTU scores, which is an index of posterior tooth occlusion, on the two sides of the oral cavity. The scores were used to classify the UM into low, moderate, and high. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analyses.

    Results: When controlling for sociodemographic factors, the aOR for hearing loss was 3.12 (95% CI, 1.21–8.03) for high UM relative to low UM. This association remained in a fully-adjusted model containing factors related to noise exposure (aOR 2.88; 95% CI, 1.12–7.46).

    Conclusion: Adults with high UM as measured using FTUs showed a higher occurrence of hearing loss than those with low UM.

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  • Kaoru Araki, Megumi Hara, Chisato Shimanoe, Yuichiro Nishida, Muneaki ...
    Article ID: JE20180054
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: Selection of test-negative controls takes less time and costs less than traditional control selection for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Here, rotavirus VE was evaluated using hospital controls and compared with test-negative controls to determine whether using the latter can substitute for the former.

    Methods: We recorded gastroenteritis in children from 2 months to 2 years of age at six medical facilities in Saga City between January 4th and May 31st, 2014. Stools from all identified acute gastroenteritis patients were tested for rotavirus using immunochromatography. Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases had test-positive stool, whereas test-negative controls had gastroenteritis but no rotavirus infection; hospital controls were outpatients visiting the same facility for indications other than gastroenteritis. Vaccination status was verified by inspecting maternal and child health records, and demographic data were obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients’ guardians or from the medical records. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounding factors.

    Results: Sixty-four RVGE cases, 260 test-negative controls, and 589 hospital controls were enrolled. The characteristics of the two control groups, including RV vaccination history, were similar. The RVGE cases were more likely to have used daycare services than children from either of the two control groups. The VE against RVGE estimated using hospital controls was 86.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.9–96.0%), very similar to the VE using test-negative controls (84.9% [95% CI, 49.6–95.5%]).

    Conclusions: The estimated VE using test-negative controls and hospital controls is similar. Therefore, test-negative controls are considered appropriate for establishing VE.

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  • Taro Kusama, Jun Aida, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Yusuke Matsuyama, Shihoko Koya ...
    Article ID: JE20180080
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: Although the majority of survivors of the huge Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami evacuated to two types of temporary housings, prefabricated housing and rented housing, health effects of these different environments were unclear. We examined whether prevalent social participation in prefabricated housing brought larger health benefits than in rented housing using the largest health survey data of the disaster survivors.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study used a 2012 survey by the Miyagi Prefectural Government, in which almost all of evacuees were targeted (response rate: 61.6%). Self-rated health (SRH) and psychological distress measured via K6 score were the dependent variables, and social participation was the independent variable. Odds ratios of the social participation on health variables were estimated using logistic regression models. To assess the contribution of social participation, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated.

    Results: The participants lived in prefabricated and rented housing numbered 19,726 and 28,270, respectively. Participants in prefabricated housing had poorer SRH and K6 than those in rented housing. The proportions of participants engaging in social participation of prefabricated and rented housing were 38.2% and 15.4%, respectively. The absence of social participation was significantly associated with poor SRH and K6 among participants in both housing types. The PAFs of social participation with good SRH were 39.5% in prefabricated housing and 14.4% in rented housing. For K6, the PAFs were 47.1% and 19.5% in prefabricated and rented housing, respectively.

    Conclusion: Compared to the residents in rented housing, residents in prefabricated housing had more frequent opportunities for social participation, which was associated with larger health benefits.

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  • Paul H. Lee
    Article ID: JE20180095
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 20, 2018

    Background: In research using accelerometers to measure physical activity, the number of accelerometers that can be utilized in a study and the study duration are both constrained. It means that increasing the number of accelerometer wearing days for all subjects leads to a decrease in the total number of participants the study can recruit. We used simulations to find the optimal combination of the number of wearing days and number of participant given a fixed number of accelerometer days.

    Methods: Two scenarios were studied here, including estimation of population physical activity level and the association between physical activity level and a health outcome. Another similar simulation was conducted by bootstrapping the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006 accelerometer data (n = 4,069).

    Results: The simulation results of the first scenario showed that the error was minimized when the number of wearing days was 1 to 2. Simulation results of the second scenario showed that the optimal number of wearing days increased with the total number of accelerometer days and decreased with intra-class correlation (ICC).

    Conclusion: We developed a tool for researchers to determine the optimal combination of the number of the accelerometer wearing days and the total number of participants and showed that 1 to 2 accelerometer wearing days is optimal for estimation of population physical activity level.

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