BACKGROUND: A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits used in the JACC Study contained a 40-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Although more than 110 thousand subjects enrolled in JACC Study and responded to the FFQ, no validation study has been conducted to date.
METHODS: Eighty-five volunteers among the cohort members completed 2 FFQs (FFQs 1&2) and 12-day weighed dietary records (WDR). The interval between the two FFQs was one year. During the one year, the subjects carried out a 3-consecutive-day WDR in each season. We tested the reproducibility by using two FFQs. Also, we tested the validity of the FFQ by using the 12-day WDR as a gold standard.
RESULTS: The intake frequencies of the 2 FFQs often agreed, showing the Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.42 (edible wild plants) to 0.86 (coffee). The Spearman correlation coefficients of the energy and nutrient intakes from FFQ2, and that of the 12-day WDR were 0.20(energy) to 0.46 (animal protein, potassium). After adjusting the energy intake, the correlation coefficients showed 0.21(fish fat) to 0.51(animal fat). When classifying the FFQ2 and WDR by quartiles and examining the degree of agreement between the two methods, we obtained its median 30%.
CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ is suitable to deal with a large group of subjects. However, since the energy and the amount of nutrient intake from this FFQ can not show the overall dietary intake situation, the subjects' dietary intake should be assessed by categories.
J Epidemiol 2005; 15: S9-S23.
2005 by Japan Epidemiological Association