Background: Development of periodontal disease (PD) may be affected by socioeconomic status. This study examined the relationship between occupational status and PD in a 5-year prospective cohort of Japanese workers.
Methods: In total, 19,633 participants had initial examinations at the Aichi Health Promotion Foundation, of whom 8210 participants aged 20 years or older did not have PD. Follow-up examinations were conducted for 3757 participants, accounting for 45.8% of baseline participants. Ultimately, 3390 participants were analyzed according to the criterion of job classification at baseline, which was based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1987. Oral examinations were performed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The CPI scores were coded as follows: healthy (score of 0); bleeding after probing (1); dental calculus (2); shallow pockets (3); and deep pockets (4). Participants with one or more sextants with a score >2 were diagnosed with PD. Poisson regression analysis was performed to adjust for age and other potential confounders.
Results: Overall, 31.6% of men and 23.8% of women had developed PD (CPI scores of 3 or 4). The adjusted relative risk (RR) for PD (CPI scores of 3 or 4) in men was not significant. On the other hand, the adjusted RRs for PD (CPI score of 4) in men were 2.52-, 2.39-, and 2.74-fold higher for skilled workers, sales persons, and drivers, respectively, than for professionals. In contrast, we found no gradient in women.
Conclusions: We found a gradient related to the risk of developing PD according to occupational status among men in a Japanese worker population.