2018 Volume 28 Issue 1 Pages 19-26
Background: The potential mechanism underlying the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remains unclear. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the potential role of the adipokines in the association between the MHO phenotype and hypertension in children and adolescents.
Methods: A total of 1184 participants at baseline were recruited from a cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MS) components. The levels of the adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, were measured.
Results: MHO individuals had higher leptin levels (11.58 ug/L vs 1.20 ug/L), leptin/adiponectin ratio (1.18 vs 0.07), and lower adiponectin (11.65 ug/L vs 15.64 ug/L) levels compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals (all P < 0.05). Compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals, the prevalence of high leptin levels (26.5% vs 0.4%), low adiponectin levels (17.9% vs 6.3%) and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio (26.0% vs 2.1%) was higher in MHO individuals (all P < 0.01). The MHO individuals with abnormal adipokines were significantly more likely to developing hypertension (high leptin, relative risk 11.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–103.35; and high leptin/adiponectin ratio, relative risk 9.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–87.97) compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals with normal adipokine levels.
Conclusions: The abnormal adipokine levels contribute to the increased hypertension risk in MHO children and adolescents. The non-traditional risk factors should be highlighted in MHO children and adolescents in clinical practice and research.