Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
Short Communication
Simultaneous Validation of Seven Physical Activity Questionnaires Used in Japanese Cohorts for Estimating Energy Expenditure: A Doubly Labeled Water Study
Hiroyuki SasaiYoshio NakataHaruka MurakamiRyoko KawakamiSatoshi NakaeShigeho TanakaKazuko Ishikawa-TakataYosuke YamadaMotohiko Miyachi
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2018 Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 437-442


Background: Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) used in large-scale Japanese cohorts have rarely been simultaneously validated against the gold standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method. This study examined the validity of seven PAQs used in Japan for estimating energy expenditure against the DLW method.

Methods: Twenty healthy Japanese adults (9 men; mean age, 32.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 9.4] years, mainly researchers and students) participated in this study. Fifteen-day daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured using the DLW method and a metabolic chamber, respectively. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as TEE − BMR − 0.1 × TEE. Seven PAQs were self-administered to estimate TEE and AEE.

Results: The mean measured values of TEE and AEE were 2,294 (SD, 318) kcal/day and 721 (SD, 161) kcal/day, respectively. All of the PAQs indicated moderate-to-strong correlations with the DLW method in TEE (rho = 0.57–0.84). Two PAQs (Japan Public Health Center Study [JPHC]-PAQ Short and JPHC-PAQ Long) showed significant equivalence in TEE and moderate intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). None of the PAQs showed significantly equivalent AEE estimates, with differences ranging from −547 to 77 kcal/day. Correlations and ICCs in AEE were mostly weak or fair (rho = 0.02–0.54, and ICC = 0.00–0.44). Only JPHC-PAQ Short provided significant and fair agreement with the DLW method.

Conclusions: TEE estimated by the PAQs showed moderate or strong correlations with the results of DLW. Two PAQs showed equivalent TEE and moderate agreement. None of the PAQs showed equivalent AEE estimation to the gold standard, with weak-to-fair correlations and agreements. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

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© 2018 Hiroyuki Sasai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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