Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
Short Communication
Increased Incidence of Visual Field Abnormalities as Determined by Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry in High Computer Users Among Japanese Workers: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Tadashi NakanoTakeshi HayashiToru NakagawaToru HondaSatoshi OwadaHitoshi EndoMasayuki Tatemichi
Author information

2018 Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 214-219


Background: This retrospective cohort study primarily aimed to investigate the possible association of computer use with visual field abnormalities (VFA) among Japanese workers.

Methods: The study included 2,377 workers (mean age 45.7 [standard deviation, 8.3] years; 2,229 men and 148 women) who initially exhibited no VFA during frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT) testing. Subjects then underwent annual follow-up FDT testing for 7 years, and VFA were determined using a FDT-test protocol (FDT-VFA). Subjects with FDT-VFA were examined by ophthalmologists. Baseline data about the mean duration of computer use during a 5-year period and refractive errors were obtained via self-administered questionnaire and evaluations for refractive errors (use of eyeglasses or contact lenses), respectively.

Results: A Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that heavy computer users (>8 hr/day) had a significantly increased risk of FDT-VFA (hazard ratio [HR] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–6.48) relative to light users (<4 hr/day), and this association was strengthened among subjects with refractive errors (HR 4.48; 95% CI, 1.87–10.74). The computer usage history also significantly correlated with FDT-VFA among subject with refractive errors (P < 0.05), and 73.1% of subjects with FDT-VFA and refractive errors were diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Conclusions: The incidence of FDT-VFA appears to be increased among Japanese workers who are heavy computer users, particularly if they have refractive errors. Further investigations of epidemiology and causality are warranted.

Information related to the author
© 2017 Tadashi Nakano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Previous article