Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Immunogenicity and Efficacy of A/H1N1pdm Vaccine Among Subjects With Severe Motor and Intellectual Disability in the 2010/11 Influenza Season
Megumi HaraTomoyuki HanaokaKazuhiro MaedaTetsuo KaseSatoko OhfujiWakaba FukushimaYoshio Hirota
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JOURNAL FREE ACCESS Advance online publication

Article ID: JE20150036

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Abstract

Background: While the immunogenicity and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines among subjects with severe motor and intellectual disability (SMID) are known to be diminished, the efficacy of the A/H1N1pdm vaccine has not been evaluated.
Methods: We prospectively evaluated 103 subjects with SMID (mean age, 41.7 years) who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2010/11 influenza season. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer was measured in serum samples collected pre-vaccination (S0), post-vaccination (S1), and end-of-season (S2) to evaluate subjects’ immunogenicity capacity. Vaccine efficacy was assessed based on antibody efficacy and achievement proportion.
Results: The proportions of seroprotection and seroconversion, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (GMT at S1/GMT at S0) for A/H1N1pdm were 46.0%, 16.0%, and 1.8, respectively—values which did not meet the European Medicines Evaluation Agency criteria. The achievement proportion was 26%. During follow-up, 11 of 43 subjects with acute respiratory illness were diagnosed with type A influenza according to a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), and A/H1N1pdm strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 5 of those 11 subjects. When either or both RIDT-diagnosed influenza or serologically diagnosed influenza (HI titer at S2/HI titer at S1 ≥2) were defined as probable influenza, subjects with A/H1N1pdm seroprotection were found to have a lower incidence of probable influenza (odds ratio, 0.31; antibody efficacy, 69%; vaccine efficacy, 18%).
Conclusions: In the present seasonal assessment, antibody efficacy was moderate against A/H1N1pdm among SMID subjects, but vaccine efficacy was low due to the reduced immunogenicity of SMID subjects.

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© 2016 Megumi Hara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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