Article ID: JE20200361
Background: Sleeping pills are widely used for sleep disorders and insomnia. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the association between the use of sleeping pills and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic components in an apparently healthy Japanese cohort.
Methods: We examined baseline cross-sectional data from the JMS-II Cohort Study. The criteria for MetS and its components were based on The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Sleep habits including the sleep duration of the subjects and the frequency of sleeping pill use were obtained using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. For different sleep durations, the association between sleeping pill use and MetS was assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models to quantify this association.
Results: Our study included 6,153 individuals (mean age, 63.8 [standard deviation 11.2] years), and 3,348 (54.4%) among them were women. The association between sleep duration and MetS was an inverted J-shaped curve among sleeping pill users and a J-shaped curve among non-users. After adjustment for various confounders, less than 6 h of sleep among sleeping pill users was associated with increased rates of MetS (<6 h, OR 3.08; 95% CI, 1.29–7.34]). The frequency of sleeping pill use in individuals with short sleep duration showed a positive association with the prevalence of MetS and its components.
Conclusions: Sleeping pill users with a short sleep duration had a 3-fold higher chance of having MetS than non-users with a short sleep duration.