Article ID: JE20210419
Background: It has not been determined whether mentally active sedentary behavior (MASB) and passive sedentary behavior (PSB) differentially affect cognitive function and whether these associations differ according to physical activity (PA) level. We examined the comparative impacts of MASB and PSB on dementia onset and aimed to understand whether the associations differed by PA level.
Methods: We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study involving all community-dwelling older adults in a rural area in Japan (n = 5,323). Dementia onset was examined using long-term care insurance data. PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized as low (<2.5 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-h/week), moderate (2.5–16.0 MET-h/week), or high (≥16.0 MET-h/week). We also assessed PSB (TV-watching time; <1 h/day, 1–3 h/day, ≥3 h/day) and MASB (Book-reading time; <10 min/day, 10–30 min/day, ≥30 min/day). To examine the associations of MASB and PSB with dementia onset, we performed the Fine-Gray models accounting for competing risk of death.
Results: During the follow-up period, 606 (11.4%) participants developed dementia. MASB was independently associated with a lower risk of dementia; the magnitude of the impact was significant at higher PA levels. There was no association between PSB and developing dementia across all PA levels. Furthermore, dementia risk for individuals with high PA levels and moderate or high MASB levels was approximately 60% lower than those with low PA levels and low MASB.
Conclusion: Providing interventions to promote MASB, which reduces dementia risk, and PA, which increases MASB’s effect on dementia incidence, can be beneficial in delaying or preventing dementia onset.