Article ID: 200608129
Matsumoto, Takenaka, and Takaya (2003) developed the Self-determined Motivation Scale for Exercise (SMSE) based on the self-determination theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 2002; Ryan & Deci, 2017) to assess behavioral regulation of exercise. The SMSE evaluates external, introjected, and identified regulations, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. The SMSE’s usefulness has been established in several studies. However, one limitation of the scale is the absence of a subscale assessing integrated regulation, which embodies the most self-determined form of extrinsic motivation in the SDT’s continuum. Previous studies on exercise motivation conducted in Japan have been unclear about the consequences of integrated regulation of exercise. This study evaluated the validity and reliability of a revised SMSE (SMSE-2), which includes items assessing integrated regulation. Undergraduates (n=995) completed the SMSE-2. The results of confirmatory factor analysis of their responses supported the six-factor SMSE-2 model (χ2(194)=1077.59, p<.01; CFI=.92, NNFI=.90, RMSEA=.07, 90% CI=.06–.07). Moreover, the acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and invariance of the scale between gender was demonstrated. These results supported the usefulness of the revised scale for both genders.