2016 年 25 巻 1-2 号 p. 35-46
This article aims to analyze how the main actors of global governance in education emerged since the 2000s define and view equality and equity of education and to address its challenges and potentials. Borrowing the analytical perspectives from global governance theories and the UNESCO's conceptual framework on five dimensions of knowledge, the authors reviewed the goals, targets, and indicators set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as the selected documents published by the main actors (i.e. World Bank, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Fast Track Initiative (FTI) and United Nations Girls Education Initiatives (FTI-UNGEI), Global Campaign for Education (GCE), Collective Consultation of NGOs for Education for All (CCNGO/EFA)) which discuss equality and equity of education between 2010 and 2015.
The authors found that the definition and theoretical perspective on equality and equity of education vary across actors of global governance. It is especially evident that equity of knowledge acquisition and utilization draws more attention than equity of creation, control, and relevance of knowledge. While the SDGs have widened its horizon on equity to include new values of education such as Education for Sustainable Development, culture of peace and non-violence, and global citizenship that apply to developed countries as well as developing countries, its indicators are still ambivalent and constrained by the orthodox dichotomy of development status and gender. Neoliberal and communitarian ideas are mixed in the discourses of the documents. For global governance to embrace the notion of ‘international justice’ or ‘global justice’ in equality and equity of education, an untiring and rigorous efforts and arrangements will be required to promote dialogue at all levels.