2015 年 21 巻 p. 91-100
The objective of this paper is to consider how to assess student learning with an investigation on the assessment framework of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program.
In an increasingly globalized world, it is critical to strengthen development of human resource cultivating capabilities for global operation activities. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) believes Japan needs intensive fostering of students who possess global views, knowledge, skills, and desirable attitudes toward global citizenry and who intend to actively work to tackle various social issues. Accordingly, 56 high schools were designated as Super Global High Schools (SGH) in 2014 by MEXT.
For this reason, the school curriculum, design and assessment of developing global human resources is needed, since how to assess various student learning has been discussed. MEXT thinks we can learn from the IB program in this regard, as IB promotes active student learning, problem-based learning and assessment methods in a multilateral manner. IB aims to do more than other curricula by developing inquisitive, knowledgeable and caring young people who are motivated to succeed. In this study, I attempt to offer some useful information and suggestions of how to assess student learning which could be applied in Japanese high schools.
I visited an IB school, trying to gain information on IB through interviewing the school principal and four students, and observing classes. In this paper, the assessment framework of International School of Brussels (ISB) encouragement of independent learning is introduced.
ISB is the largest and oldest school with English education in Belgium. The school, committed to sustainability, has more than 1,500 students from 70 countries studying from early childhood education through high school.
According to the principal and the provided Assessment and Grading Handbook for Parents, the primary purpose of assessment is to improve learning, and should thus be seen as assessment for learning. In the process, students and teachers work together to improve learning, for example, by sharing the intended learning purpose, examining models and descriptions of what ideal learning resembles and using feedback from teacher, peer and self-assessment to plan a path to the next learning steps to meet the learning purposes. ISB has five assessment criteria, which are used for all appropriate subjects. They are 1) Understanding, Knowledge and Skills, 2) Language for Learning, 3) Learning through Inquiry and Problem-Solving, 4) Learning Relationships, and 5) Learning for Innovation. Based on these criteria, various kinds of assessments are implemented such as discussions, presentations, reports, projects and so on.
Through the research, it is revealed that the ISB assessment policy provides students with the tools and support to develop skills to self-assess and set goals for future learning by promoting increasingly independent learning. We should encourage students to take responsibility for their study so that they can continue to pursue innovation in this varied and complicated global society. By referring to the IB program, we should create a better instruction and assessment system to improve student learning.