2002 年 22 巻 4 号 p. 216-226
A flat -panel detector (FPD) is a long awaited technology to implement the digital X-ray imaging technology into the radiological department. This paper describes the state-of-the-art technology and future prospects on the FPD technology.
State -of -the -art technology was reviewed taking the CXD I series as an example. Several FPD-based systems have been introduced into the Japanese market since CXDI-11 opened it in November 1998. Accompanying CXDI-C2 for control, CXDI-22for table position and CXDI-31 for portable, the CXDI series fulfils the requirement of the radiography room being a fully digitalized room.
The FPD on the CXDI series is comprised of a scintillator (Gd2O2S: Tb3+) as a primary sensor in which the X ray is captured and an amorphous silicon detector (LANMIT) as a secondary sensor in which the fluorescent light is detected. Since the scintillator is identical to that of the screen-film systems, it can be said as proven, durable and chemically stable and it is expected to produce the same image quality as the screen -film systems. CXDI 31, a portable FPD -based system, was developed targeting thinner dimensions, lightweight, durability and high spatial resolution. Thoroughly re-designing the mechanical structure and reducing the power consumption at the readout IC realized thinner dimensions. Introducing the portable note PC technologies successfully combined lightweight with durability. Improving the sensor process and re designing the layout made the sensor high resolution without compromising the signal to - noise ratio.
Future prospects were overviewed in the aspect of technology and applications. Sensitivity, spatial resolution, frame rate and portability were described as the upcoming technology. Increasing gain and reducing noise will realize higher sensitivity, especially by adopting the PbI2, HgI2 or such photoconductor materials as the primary sensor. Pixelized amplifier will also achieve higher sensitivity. Layered sensor designed such that TFT layer and sensitive layer are constructed separately will decrease the pixel pitch lower than 100μm. The FPD has been applied in radiography, mammography and angiography. It w ill expand the applications into low - dose fluoroscopy to replace the X-ray image intensifiers and into cone - beam computer tomography.
What the FPD brought was mainly the efficient workflow of the X-ray technologist. However, diagnosis efficiency and patient benefit must be improved further more by combining the FPD technology into computer-aided diagnosis, tele-radiography or other IT-based technologies. Such prospects may come true in the near future.