2014 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 705-720
The Young Men's Association (YMA) was an education institute that provided business programmes and further education for young men. It aimed to train both mind and body, and valued sporting activities.
However, there has been little knowledge about the state of sporting activities provided by the YMA. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the state of the sporting activities at Fuchu YMA in Tokyo. For this purpose, the study used Fuchu-sport bulletins which specialized in such sporting programmes during the Taisho era and pre-war Showa era.
The main findings are summarized as follows.
1) Fuchu-sport was modeled on a specialized magazine, Asahi Sports. The publication of Fuchu-sport was an indication of the high interest in sport during the Taisho era.
2) After the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of Education announced their first and second instructions, the Tokyo government independently ran conferences aimed at the development of sport and physical education at Tokyo YMA. Accordingly, Tokyo was one step ahead of other areas in Japan in setting up athletic clubs for the YMA.
3) The organization of kyogi-bu was supported mainly by Fuchu YMA, but also funded by the local authority and by Fuchu ordinary and higher elementary school, the latter being also committed to conducting actual sporting activities.
4) University students were recruited as coaches, and thereby the kyogi-bu provided successful programmes that led to an improvement in competitive level. However, this improvement resulted in elimination of some of the members.
5) The remarkable successes of the kyogi-bu and its development in Fuchu were accomplished by collaborating with the local educational institutions. The relationship between the YMA and school athletic clubs was another significant factor in running the sporting programmes.
The present study has provided deeper insights into the nature of sporting activities held by the YMA during the Taisho era and pre-war Showa era.