Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Current issue
Displaying 1-42 of 42 articles from this issue
Review
  • Review and future directions
    Takayuki NATSUHARA, Masao NAKAYAMA, Hayato KAWAKITA, Kaori ARAKI, Soic ...
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 379-396
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 26, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The successful development of Transformational Leadership (TFL) theory has influenced research in organizational psychology since the 1980s. Research shows that TFL has been effective not only in the domain of business but also in the military, education, parenting, and public sectors. Sport psychology researchers became interested in TFL in the early 2000s. The TFL behaviors in sport include individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, fostering teamwork, high performance expectation, and appropriate role modeling. The focus of the current review paper is to examine and organize research on TFL in the sport coaching literature. More specifically, the effects of coaches’ TFL behavior on the psychological and behavioral aspects of athletes are reviewed. The previous literature was organized into 7 themes: performance, training attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, cohesion, satisfaction, and psychological development. It is recommended that future research should examine the effect of TFL on desired psychological and behavioral outcomes of athletes and include it in sport coaching education.
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Original investigations
  • Release from misunderstanding and rebuilding a premise for discussion
    Toru TAKAHASHI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 9-23
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The present study was performed to clarify the following 2 issues to reconstruct a premise that would facilitate a meaningful debate on John Dewey's views in the field of physical education. First, certain misconceptions surrounding Dewey's views, which were regarded as experientialist, were examined in an attempt to understand his claims and position more accurately. Second, it was investigated how the field of physical education in Japan came to accept Dewey's educational approach and how it impacted the field.
     Initially, an overview of Dewey's conception of pragmatism was conducted, and then misconceptions about Dewey's approach and their origin were discussed. Then, the impact of Dewey's educational theory on the field of physical education in post-war Japan was examined, focusing in particular on the relationship between Dewey's thought and Maekawa Mineo's “theory of physical education in life”.
     Contrary to popular belief, Dewey's educational approach did not prioritize a form of radical experientialism. Rather, it focused on shaping a child' s development by reconstructing experience. Dewey argued that different methods should be used to provide experiences that are meaningful for a child's growth. In other words, his approach aimed to actively deconstruct and reconstruct the framework of modern education. In this sense, one must understand Dewey's aim in order to properly understand his broader educational theory.
     Dewey's educational theory was influential in Japan's post-war educational reform. In the field of physical education, in particular, his theory was foundational to Maekawa's theory. However, his theory has been misinterpreted when applied in schools, and the experiential learning that was implemented has been criticized for hindering physical abilities. Likewise, the field of physical education has been critical of Dewey's educational theory because of its experiential nature. Regardless of the merits and demerits of Dewey's theory, the physical education literature must first properly interpret it if research on its implementation in the field is to develop further.
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  • focus on velocity of the center of gravity by the pivot leg and ground reaction force of the stride leg
    Yasushi KARIYAMA, Ayano TOYODA, Hiroaki FUJII
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 25-34
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 02, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 27, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg during windmill pitching are critical for ball speed. The aim of this study was to investigate jump ability in relation to the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg. Seven female softball pitchers performed windmill pitching and various jump tests: countermovement jump, standing long jump (SLJ), rebound jump (RJ), and one-step approach single-leg vertical jump (AVJ). The results obtained were as follows.
     1) No significant relationship between the ball speed during windmill pitching and jump ability was observed in any of the jump tests.
     2) The velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg was significantly correlated with SLJ and RJ ability.
     3) The vertical and horizontal negative impulses (ground reaction force) during windmill pitching were significantly correlated with those in the AVJ.
     These results demonstrated that the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg—which, as demonstrated in previous studies, are crucial in determining the ball speed during windmill pitching—were correlated with jump ability. Moreover, the relationship between jump ability and the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and that between jump ability and the ground reaction force of the stride leg differed.
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  • Atsushi SHIBATA, Yasushi ENOMOTO
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 35-48
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinetic characteristics of the take-off leg during the take-off phase required to effectively change the direction of the center of the mass velocity vector in the running single-leg jump (RSLJ) by comparing the kinetics of jumpers and sprinters. Nine male collegiate jumpers and 9 male collegiate sprinters performed the RSLJ in 2 tasks designed to achieve as much forward and upward motion as possible, respectively, with 4 different run-up speeds. Three-dimensional coordinates of the end positions of the body segments and the ground reaction force were obtained using a motion capture and force platform system. Leg stiffness and the change in direction of the velocity of the center of mass during the second half of the takeoff phase were greater for the jumpers than for the sprinters at the same run-up speed. However, there was no significant difference in the decrease of velocity between the 2 groups. As a result, the jumpers achieved a greater jump height and jump distance. They also exhibited greater knee joint torque in the first half and greater ankle plantar torque in the second half than the sprinters. This ankle plantar flexion torque might prevent excessive forward rotation of the shank segment during the take-off phase. These results suggest that differences in the take-off leg kinetics of jumpers may work to change the direction of the center of mass velocity more effectively.
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  • Kohei FUNASAKI, Katsuyoshi SHIRAI, Yukihiko OKADA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 49-65
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of the present study was to explore how a national sport organization (NSO) can improve the domestic elite sport system.
     The authors developed a framework for analyzing the relationships between the organizational capacity of the NSO and the elite sport system. This framework reflected relationships among the following concepts derived from a literature review: (a) National financial support influences the organizational capacity of the NSO. (b) The organizational capacity of the NSO influences the elite sport system. (c) The organizational capacity of the NSO influences the elite sport system through other sport development stakeholders. An exploratory case study of the NSO was conducted to determine the best practice for improving Japanese international sport competitiveness.
     Findings concerning relationships among these concepts in the analytical framework were highlighted, focusing particularly on knowledge of the organizational capacity contained in human resources. The findings suggested a chain structure in which the regional coach understood the practical coaching knowledge of the national coach and then shared it with other regional coaches.
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  • About gymnastics and its musical accompaniment at the Taiso Denshu Jo
    Yoshie SOGA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 67-78
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The present study, based on a literature review, was conducted to clarify the role of music in the development of modern physical education in Japan by focusing on the relationship between physical education and musical accompaniment, as exemplified by light gymnastics at the Taiso Denshu Jo (National School of Gymnastics), which were introduced with the aim of establishing modern school physical education.
     The results obtained were as follows.
     1. G.A. Leland and gymnastics instructors believed that performing gymnastics with musical accompaniment would be very effective, based on the gymnastics books “Shinsentaisousyo” and “Shinseitaisouhou”.
     2. It appears that Clara Matsuno was actually hired as a part-time employee specializing in gymnastics accompaniment until the Taiso Denshu Jo became attached to the Tokyo Normal School.
     3. From the records of the “Ongaku Torishirabe Gakari Jidai Bunshotsuzuri” (Documentary Files on the Research and Musical Educational Institution) held by Tokyo University of the Arts, it seems that Watson's gymnastics book was used at the Taiso Denshu Jo.
     4. From the above records, it became clear that G.A. Leland recommended that Japanese samurai descendants should sing exercises songs from an early age in order to strengthen their bodies because of their weak lungs.
     5. The above records revealed that tuning repair and rental of gymnastics pianos were often carried out. This suggests that a lot of gymnastics practice was performed with piano accompaniment at the Taiso Denshu Jo.
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  • Kodayu ZUSHI, Yasushi KARIYAMA, Takuya YOSHIDA, Amane ZUSHI, Keigo OHY ...
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 91-102
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 18, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This study aimed to investigate differences in the isometric rate of force development (IRFD) for the early, late, and whole phases of the force-time curve during explosive leg extension among ball sports athletes and track and field athletes. Ninety-one athletes specializing in different ball sports (ball sports athletes group), 43 sprinters and jumpers (sprinters & jumpers group), 10 throwers (thrower group) and 14 endurance runners (endurance runners group) performed the isometric unilateral leg press with explosive force production. A custombuilt dynamometer was used to measure IRFDs during the isometric unilateral leg press with a knee angle of 115 deg. IRFDs for early phase (Early IRFD), late phase (Late IRFD) and overall force-time curve (Average IRFD) were obtained. relative IRFD that took individual body weight (IRFD/BW) were also derived. Differences in IRFDs among the various sport groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison. It was found that IRFDs other than Late IRFD/BW showed a significant main effect among the athlete groups (p < 0.05). The results suggested that the characteristics of IRFDs other than Late IRFD/BW might differ among athletes according to their specialization. For multiple comparison, the ball sports athletes group and the sprinters & jumpers group tended to show similar mean IRFD values. However, only mean values for the Early IRFD/BW of sprinters & jumpers group were significantly greater than those for the ball sports athletes group (p < 0.05). In the throwers group, the mean of any IRFD tended to be greater, and the mean values of Early IRFD, Late IRFD, and Average IRFD were significantly greater than in the other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, the endurance runners group tended to show small mean values for any IRFDs. These present results suggest that the capacity for explosive force production is reflected in the differences of IRFDs other than the Late IRFD/BW among various sports.
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  • Yusuke HIOKI, Yuki FURUHASHI, Ryohei HAYASHI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 125-141
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This study aimed to investigate the developmental characteristics of the double- and single-leg countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) in elementary and junior high school students. A total of 823 students (401 boys and 422 girls) aged 7 to 15 years performed the CMJ, RJ, single-leg CMJ (SCMJ), and single-leg RJ (SRJ). To evaluate jumping ability, we measured the jumping height and RJ-index for the CMJ and SCMJ and for the RJ and SRJ, respectively. The main results obtained were as follows:
     1) In boys, both the CMJ and SCMJ jumping heights and the RJ and SRJ indices were shown to develop with age.
     2) In girls, the developmental characteristics of both CMJ and RJ ability differed between single-leg and doubleleg.
     3) In both sexes, the ground contact time in the SRJ increased significantly after age 9—10 years (p < 0.01).
     4) Regarding the CMJ jump height, a significant correlation was found between the CMJ and SCMJ in both sexes (p < 0.01). For the RJ-index, a significant correlation was found between the RJ and the SRJ in both sexes (p < 0.01).
     5) The number of boys and girls with a SRJ type may increase after junior high school, and the number of girls with a RJ type may decrease after junior high school.
     Our findings indicate that the developmental process of double- and single-leg jumping in elementary and junior high school students is similar in boys but different in girls. Comparison between double- and single-leg jumping ability showed that the CMJ had a high coefficient of determination, while the RJ had a lower value. Additionally, the number of boys and girls with a SRJ type may increase after junior high school. Therefore, especially when evaluating performance of the RJ, it is necessary to measure the performance of the double-leg and that of the single-leg.
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  • Kazuki FUJINO, Atsushi KIUCHI, Naoki HATTA, Yujiro MASU, Naoki HAYASHI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 143-156
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 08, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 12, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This study of university students examined the effects of a rubric based on subjective skill tasks on the subjective benefits of participation in physical education courses. Three studies were conducted based on the ADDIE course improvement model. We examined 595 subjects taking a badminton course (177 from preimprovement courses and 418 from improved courses) at universities C and D in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Study 1 examined the impact of badminton skill level in pre-improvement classes on the subjective benefits. The results indicated that students with higher skill levels had higher learning outcomes than those with lower skill levels. Study 2 utilized free descriptions by students to identify the subjective skill tasks they found difficult based on their skill level. This clarified that the perception of tasks differed according to skill level. For example, members of the beginner group assessed their skills not by their own movement but by the flight of the shuttle, and a rubric was created based on this evaluation. In Study 3, the subjective benefit scores were compared between the pre-improvement classes and the improved classes using the rubric. This revealed that the improved classes using the rubric had higher scores than the pre-improvement classes in terms of “Improvements in physical strength and physical activities” and “Establishment of regular lifestyles.” The results indicated that the improved class using the rubric based on subjective skill tasks enhanced the subjective benefits perceived by the students.
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  • Focusing on the change in his focus on physical formation
    Kenichi HIROSE
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 183-197
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 18, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This paper focuses on François Rabelais (1494?-1553), who was active during the Renaissance period, which marked a turning point in history and attitudes towards physical education. We tried to extract his ideas on physical education from the contents of his work “Gargantua and Pantagruel”. In this paper, as a “viewpoint” for extracting Rabelais's “physical education ideas”, we focused on the relationship between the terms “education” and “body”, which forms the actual element of “physical education”.
     First, we confirmed how Rabelais positions the body, which is the focus in physical education. As a result, the “Second Book”, which is the first part of “Gargantua and Pantagruel”, revealed that he might not have had a positive view of education for the body. An examination of the “First Book”, which was published 2 years after the “Second Book”, revealed that Rabelais treated knowledge education and physical exercise equally, and changes in his physical view were recognized. In the “First Book”, he argued that education of the mind and body at the same time was incompatible. The “First Book” expresses a deeper and clearer description of Rabelais's concept of physical education. Regarding the body as an object to be educated, the contents of play and chivalry education are adopted as the items of physical exercise, and the constituent elements of physical education are confirmed in this scenario.
     Rabelais's ideal educational theory is a method of appealing to human autonomy, and the ideal society appears in the story of “Abbey of Thélème”. Here, it is possible to identify the constituent elements of physical education as “self-education” as a target for autonomous humans to discipline their bodies.
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  • Shunsuke SHIRAKI, Mitsugi OGATA, Kohei YAMAMOTO, Kiyonobu KIGOSHI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 199-211
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 12, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The present study aimed to examine the profile of energy metabolism during repetition sprint exercises with different rest durations. Nine competitive male track and field athletes performed a submaximal-intensity increment exercise and 4 kinds of 2 consecutive 30-s sprints tests with rest durations of 4, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The mean power output during these sprints was evaluated as the average value over the entire 30-s period. Aerobic and anaerobic energy during these sprints was determined from the extrapolated linear regression between power and the steady-state O2 uptake obtained during the submaximal-intensity increment exercise. During 2nd sprints compared with 1st sprints in the respective tests, the mean power output decreased significantly in the tests with rest durations of 4, 10, and 15 min; in all the tests, the aerobic energy increased significantly and the anaerobic energy decreased significantly. These results suggest that the 1st sprint in a repetition sprint exercise causes activation of aerobic metabolism and inhibition of anaerobic metabolism during the 2nd sprint. On the other hand, it is also suggested that recovery of anaerobic metabolism after the 1st sprint requires a longer rest duration than that for recovery of performance in the repetition sprint exercise.
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  • application to the Fosbury flop
    Toshiki KOJIMA, Yuji KAMIAKA, Yuzo KOYAMA, Yoshinori KINOMURA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 213-233
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 12, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     Teaching of the “Fosbury flop” in junior high school has high educational and developmental value for students. However, it is often the case that the teaching and learning methods in this class do not work well for some students because they are inconsistent with their tendency to interpret information. Therefore, learning material based on multi-interpretability has been created to overcome this difficulty for both teachers and students.
     Currently, as this learning material only has theoretically guaranteed effectiveness, it needs to be examined empirically. Moreover, any guaranteed theory also needs to be criticised empirically. In order to achieve this empirical examination, it is necessary to prove its effectiveness as a subjectivity study because of the nature of the theory behind the creation of the material. No consensus regarding a survey method for subjectivity research has yet been established. Therefore, the purposes of the present study were (1) to verify the effect of the learning material based on multi-interpretability of “Fosbury flop” lessons in junior high school, and (2) to create a reasonable proposal for the survey method using a subjectivity research approach.
     With regard to (1), use of a learning material based on multbri-interpretability can enable unlearned items to change shape according to already learned items after execution and can provide anchoring biases in learners before execution. Thus, application of multi-interpretability is effective, and the “Fosbury flop” is easier to learn when these learning materials are employed. With regard to (2), it has been demonstrated that the method above can be adapted to subjectivity research and the procedure can be established, yielding positive results.
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  • A critical review
    Jun MIKAMI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 255-271
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 03, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to identify issues related to the treatment of sex/gender in studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities, conducted by comparing individuals belonging and not belonging to athletic clubs, through a critical review of gender and sexuality perspective.
     The materials for this review, “studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities”, were collected according to Imashuku et al. (2019). The present study was conducted with reference to previous work that had pointed out existing problems related to gender perspective. In addition, to clarify the perspective of this study, transition of the gender concept was summarized, along with a discussion of sexual diversity.
     The gender of the respondents in 149 articles was collected. Among them, 12 articles did not report the gender of the respondents (8.1%), 12 articles reported all-female samples (8.1%), 25 articles reported all-male samples (16.8%), 91 articles reported both female and male samples (61.1%), and 9 articles included “neither,” “blank,” or “no-answer” in addition to female and male samples in the analyses (6.0%).
     An asymmetric nature between the all-male samples and all-female samples was evident. Articles with all female samples stated the reasons for setting the participants, unlike those with all male participants. In articles that included both female and male participants in the analysis, it became clear that there were problems with analytical methods that ignored gender differences or assumed sex differences. In addition, there were problems with interpretation that left gender differences unaddressed or considered them in terms of sex-related traits. The present study also reviewed how sexual diversity can be masked due to research design, exclusion of “no-answer,” and non-consideration of minorities. Finally, using one article as the object to be considered, a concrete example of the significance of introducing a gender perspective was included.
     Through this review, it is argued that there is a need to re-examine “studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities” from a gender perspective, and also for social construction of gender and sexual diversity in research design, analysis and discussion.
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  • Ken TAGA, Takeshi ASAI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 273-296
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 03, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of continuous dribbling training on the dribbling movement mode and game performance of junior youth soccer players. The subjects were 32 junior high school soccer players: 17 in the training group, and 15 in the control group. Both groups did 2 hours of training 3 times a week for 16 months. The training group performed dribbling training while the control group performed agility and pass & control training for the first 40 minutes. The dribbling tests, motion filming and 11 vs 11 games with the third group were carried out before each group's training, after 3 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 16 months. The results showed that time in the dribbling test was decreased to a greater degree in the training group than in the control group. With zigzag dribbling, time showed a greater decrease only in the training group as training progressed. For double scissors feinting, the time in double scissors showed a greater decrease in the training group than in the control group. This was because the standard deviation of body axis inclination decreased in a crosswise direction in the YZ plane in the training group. Furthermore, the center of gravity velocity at ball carrying showed a significant increase only in the training group as training progressed. This was because the knee joint angle of the supporting leg decreased at the moment of ball touch, and the knee joint angular velocity of the supporting leg increased upon lifting from the ground in the training group. With double touch feinting, the ball velocity and center of gravity velocity showed greater increase in the training group than in the control group. This was because the knee joint angle of the supporting leg decreased at the moment of ball touch, and the knee joint angular velocity of the supporting leg increased upon lifting from the ground in the training group. With regard to game performance, the success rate in dribbling was significantly improved only in the training group. The success rate in passing showed a decrease in both groups after 3 months, but was significantly increased only in the training group. Consequently, this study clarified that continuous dribbling training intended for junior high school soccer players decreased the time in the dribbling test and changed the dribbling movement mode, thus improving dribbling skill. It is suggested that this improvement will contribute to enhancement of game performance in terms of dribbling and passing.
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  • Banjou SASAKI, Mina YOSHIDA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 329-342
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 19, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2022
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     This study was conducted to investigate the actual situation of eating disorders in female esthetic athletes and to examine the relationship between their eating behavior and their coping behavior when in stressful situations. The subjects were 131 female university athletes engaged in high-level cheerleading, song leading, creative dance, rhythmic gymnastics, and gymnastics (average age 19.8 ± 1.01 years). We asked them how they perceive expectations from others, whether or not they are willing to live up to such expectations, whether or not they think that their current body shape is suitable for competition, and the number of meals eaten per day. We also asked them to complete the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). The threshold value in the original EAT-26 is 20 points; however, it has been pointed out that a more suitable threshold for Japanese people is 15. Therefore, in our analysis, we set 15 points as the threshold value. The results suggested that 41.7% of our subjects were at high risk of eating disorders. A comparison by event revealed that rhythmic gymnastics athletes were at the highest risk. Furthermore, among athletes who considered their current body shape to be less than adequate for competing in their event, those who ate fewer than 3 meals per day showed a higher risk of suffering from eating disorders. Athletes who adopted coping behaviors while prioritizing emotional control in stressful situations were at higher risk of eating disorders. Finally, we assessed various means of preventing eating disorders in this cohort.
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  • focusing attention on the method of player selection on the baseball team in high school
    Eiichiro FUKAMI, Yusuke OKADA, Kazuhiko INOUE
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 343-360
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 19, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 19, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     In this study, we conducted a survey of current high school baseball coaches regarding the method of player selection, which is important for both coaches and team members for successful team management. The subjects were 45 head coaches of high school baseball teams.
     The survey results revealed that the most common method of player selection was the head coach taking the initiative by listening to the thoughts and opinions of the team members, therein selecting players. Here, the head coach presents the selection criteria which all the team members should make an effort to advance and equally guarantee the opportunity to be selected as a player. An important selection criterion was high baseball skills and achievements among the players. Moreover, an attitude of the player for reliable and hard-working team practice was deemed necessary. It is considered that these selection criteria and procedures would ensure that all team members would have an opportunity to make independent efforts to create a successful baseball team. Among the targeted high school baseball teams, no team was found to select players by exchanging opinions with team members only. This is because it is very complicated and difficult to show fair and clear selection criteria and selection procedures to all of the team members, leading to difficulty in selecting players fairly in a diverse and large team. In addition, baseball is a game in which most of the technical and tactical play in the game is executed by signs from the head coach.
     Therefore, in comparison to other sports, it is considered more comfortable for both the head coach and the team members to select individual players under the guidance of the head coach. As a future research topic, it will be necessary to examine how team members feel about and evaluate the choice of players under the guidance of the head coach.
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  • related features and factors
    Yuki YABUNAKA, Ryo KAMETANI, Yaeko YAMADA, Hironobu TSUCHIYA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 419-435
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 04, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The aims of this research were to develop a scale that can assess generalization of the psychosocial skills used in competitive sports to other life domains for collegiate athletes, and to examine its characteristics and related factors.
     In a preliminary study, the generalization areas identified were study, career selection, relationships, and everyday life. Furthermore, 71 items representing 4 generalization areas were developed based on 10 dimensions of the required life skills for collegiate athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013). The items were reviewed by 8 experts to confirm the content validity. Subsequently, factor analysis was conducted using the data collected from 262 participants (162 males and 100 females) to select a list of items. The initial 40 items were extracted and the content validity for all items was developed.
     In the main study, a total of 391 university student athletes (234 males and 154 females, and 3 not specified) were asked to respond to a questionnaire. The survey included questions about socio-demographic and psychosocial skills used in competitive sports (Ueno and Nakagomi., 1998), required life skills for athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013), and questions about factors related to generalization (similarity of action and awareness of generalization possibilities). In addition, they responded to 40 items designed to assess generalization of the psychosocial skills used in competitive sports to other life domains derived from our preliminary studies. Confirmative factor analysis of the generalization of psychosocial skills items indicated a 10-factor structure with 30 items. Reliability was verified in terms of internal consistency. Convergent validity was confirmed by correlations with psychosocial skills used in competitive sports and required life skills for collegiate athletes. The scale derived from these results was named the “Generalization Scale of Psychosocial Skills for Collegiate Athletes” (GSPS-CA). In terms of demographic variables (gender, grade, and individual or team events), gender and grade differences were observed in some dimensions of the GSPS-CA, and individual or team event differences were not observed in any dimension. One-way ANOVA of each dimension of the GSPS-CA revealed interaction with factors related to generalization (similarity of action and awareness of generalization possibilities).
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  • cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students
    Yuko HASHIMOTO, Ryoko KAWAKAMI, Yuko GANDO, Susumu SAWADA, Ko MATSUDAI ...
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 437-444
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 27, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     A cross-sectional evaluation of the association between total physical activity and body awareness was performed. The subjects were 361 Japanese female university students. The IPAQ-SV was used to assess the amount of physical activity, and Fujino's Body Awareness Scale was used to assess Actual Body Feeling, Awareness of Bodily Feeling, Awareness when Standing and Walking, and Bodily Distress. Total Body Awareness was defined as the sum of the above 3 except for Bodily Distress. The data were adjusted for age and body fat, and the association between physical activity and Body Awareness was examined using analysis of covariance. The results revealed positive associations between physical activity and total Body Awareness (P for trend=0.001). In terms of intensity, there were positive associations between total Body Awareness, moderate-intensity physical activity (P for trend=0.041), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (P for trend=0.001). These results suggest that there is a positive association between physical activity and Body Awareness among Japanese female university students, especially for vigorous-intensity physical activity.
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  • Yuki ASANO, Fumitake OKABE, Zenya FUJITA, Jun TSUCHIYA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 445-462
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 11, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 27, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of twisting motion during a round-off, and its changes resulting from connection to a stretched backward somersault in gymnastics floor exercise. Eight male gymnasts performed a round-off (i.e., round-off trial) and a round-off to a backward stretched somersault (i.e., round-off somersault trial). Each of the trials was videotaped with 4 cameras operating at 120 fps to obtain 3-dimensional coordinate data. The time for a round-off, the center of mass of the hands and feet, the velocity of the center of body mass, the rotation angle about the longitudinal axis of the body (i.e., twist angle of round-off), the torsion angle of the torso, the shoulder joint angle, and the hip joint angle were calculated. The results indicated that the twist angle of round-off increased continually, starting before hand contact with the floor and ending when the hands left the floor. The round-off twist was not only generated by hip abduction at the stepping leg, but also promoted by the upward swing motion of both legs through his back side. The round-off trial temporarily formed a deeply flexed lunging position to increase the velocity of the center of body mass in the frontal direction. Also, the backward upswing of the legs rotated the lower torso, thus restraining the torso torsion. To gain the required rotational magnitude for a somersault, gymnasts flexed the hip in the air so that the feet came closer to the hand.
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  • Banjou SASAKI, Kana AOYAGI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 463-477
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 15, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 17, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to investigate how female high school tennis players recognized their opponents' physical features and outfit, whether or not those features affected player performance, and the extent to which this recognition was related to the level of sports competition trait anxiety and competitive psychological ability. The study subjects were 64 female students (mean age 16.9±.72 yr) who belonged to a high school tennis club. We created 15 questions relating to the physical features and outfit of their opponents and asked the subjects to what extent they were concerned about each feature, and whether each feature had a negative, positive, or zero effect on their performance. In addition, for each subject, we applied the trait anxiety inventory for sports and the diagnostic inventory of competitive psychological ability for athletes. The results revealed that players with fewer years of competitive experience and those with less competitiveness tended to be more concerned about their opponent's physical features, such as their height, physique, and skin tan, as well as the characteristics of their outfit, such as the color and design of their uniform and their racket brand. They also considered whether such features had a negative effect on their performance. Players who showed high trait anxiety, as well as those who had lower psychological competitive ability, were particularly concerned about features of their opponent's outfit. It appeared that their impression of the opponent's physical ability and expertise was significantly affected by the opponent's outfit. Finally, we investigated the psychological skills required to avoid being negatively affected by the features of opponents, and defined a number of issues for future study.
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  • Koji YAMAMOTO, Takumi NAKASUGA, Kohei SHIMAMOTO, Yoshio SUGIYAMA, Hisa ...
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 479-500
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 16, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
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     The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measurement of students' perception of feedback behavior in junior high school physical education classes, in order to consider effective feedback through comparisons of gender, grade level, and learning outcomes.
     First, 36 items for assessment of feedback behavior in physical education classes were developed based on the feedback frameworks of Takahashi et al. (1991), from various previous studies on teacher behavior, and the behavior of teachers and students in physical education videos. Then, a preliminary survey of 1092 junior high school students (boys: 561, girls: 531, first year: 250, second year: 325, third year: 517) was conducted. The content of the items mainly related to negative feedback was then revised, and 36 items were selected. Next, the main survey was conducted on 1339 junior high school students (boys: 728, girls: 611; first year: 452, second year: 468, third year: 419; mean age: 13.22±.94) using the 36 items selected in the preliminary survey. Based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the cognitive structure of feedback behaviors in physical education classes was found to include 4 factors: “praise”, “advice on motor skills”, “reprimands for class behavior”, and “criticism of motor skills”. The reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's α. Furthermore, the validity was verified by the correlation coefficient and analysis of variance between each subscale based on gender and grade, and shown to be generally satisfactory. Finally, multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the effects of feedback behaviors on learning outcomes in physical education classes. The results showed that positive and corrective feedback behaviors positively affected all of the learning outcomes. On the other hand, negative feedback behavior had a negative effect on some of the learning outcomes for girls.
     Therefore, it was confirmed that each subscale had generally satisfactory reliability and validity. Finally, validation of the causal model and case studies to assess the goals of health and physical education were considered necessary as future issues.
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  • How did the Junior High School Physical Culture Association interpret the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism in school sports?
    Atsushi NAKAZAWA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 501-517
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 07, 2022
    Advance online publication: June 02, 2022
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     The overabundance of extracurricular sports activities in Japan has been called into question. Its symbol is the Nippon Junior High School Tournament held by Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association. How was this event established? The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which the tournament was established and to examine the relationship between education and competition in school sports.
     Previous studies have sought the reasons for the establishment of the national championships with the relaxation of standards for external competitions in accordance with the demands of sports federations, and have viewed the process as one in which competition disparaged education. This approach assumes that education and competition have a dichotomous relationship that is mutually incompatible, and the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism has been viewed as a specific issue.
     However, this view does not allow us to understand why the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, which had been trying to suppress the national championships, turned around and held the Nippon Junior High School Tournament. In this study, we reviewed this issue from the perspective of the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, and clarified the active role it played in reorganizing the national championships in order to solve inherent educational problems, while competing with the sports federations that began holding the national championships.
     For the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, the process of establishing national championships was not a process in which athletic competition disparaged education, but one in which education was achieved through competition. How did it interpret the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism?
     The Junior High School Physical Culture Association did not abandon educative egalitarianism while finding significance in competitive elitism. Rather, it placed more emphasis on the former in order to justify the significance of competitive selection. The national championships must be open to all students equally, not just to a few elite athletes, and they were interpreted as meaningful because the winners were selected after all students had participated. In this way, the conflicts between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism were overcome, and as a result, the Nippon Junior High School Tournament was established. This was a historical turning point in the “overheating” of junior high school sports.
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  • Naoki NUMAZU, Norihisa FUJII, Masaaki KOIDO
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 519-536
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 08, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 14, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This study aimed to clarify the biomechanical characteristics of preparatory motions required for defensive diving by soccer goalkeepers (GKs). Seventeen collegiate male GKs and 14 collegiate male outfield players (strikers) participated. The experimental setup was based on a previous study (Numazu et al., 2019), and the experiment was conducted using simulated shooting situations in the penalty area. Three-dimensional coordinate data for the GKs and strikers were captured using 2 motion capture systems with 24 cameras (250 Hz, 16 cameras for the GKs and 8 cameras for the strikers). The 2 systems were synchronized by an analog signal (1000 Hz). We analyzed 430 trials where the GKs dived toward the shot (NU: 75 trials, NM: 94 trials, NL: 37 trials, FU: 58 trials, FM: 83 trials, and FL: 83 trials). The participating GKs performed a small jumping motion vertically upward, similar to a split-step, as a preparatory motion. The primary variables computed were as follows: elapsed time of preparatory motion, velocity of the center of gravity at takeoff in the frontal plane, stance width divided by leg length, height of preparatory motion, segment angle of the trunk in the sagittal plane, and angles of the lower limb joints. The major findings were as follows: 1) To respond quickly to the shot, the GKs leaned the trunk forward and flexed the lower leg joints, externally rotated the hip joints of both legs, abducted the hip joints, and opened the feet to 70% of the leg length. 2) GKs performed the take-off of the preparatory motion simultaneously when the striker made contact between the support leg and the ground. 3) It was considered that GKs changed their movement to match the flight trajectory of the ball later than CSon.
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  • Focusing on the long jump as performed by elementary school students
    Miho SHIMURA, Yasushi KARIYAMA, Mitsugi OGATA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 577-589
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 16, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 10, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The rhythm adjustment ability of elementary school students was evaluated quantitatively with reference to the structure of movements in the long jump. The items analyzed included a 20-m run, two 20-m runs over mini hurdles placed at different intervals, a standing broad jump, and a long jump. Coefficients of correlation between the RA ratio (Rhythm Adjustment ability) for the 20-m mini hurdle and 20-m run and other measured items were calculated, in addition the effect of the RA ratio on the long jump. The results showed that RA ratio is important for the long jump distance, and that the long jump distance was significantly influenced by speed (20-m run), leg power (standing broad jump) and RA ratio. It was also shown that the contribution of RA ratio was equivalent to the contribution of speed, and higher than the contribution of leg power. These results suggest that the RA ratio is valid for evaluation of the rhythm adjustment ability.
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  • Ryota SUZUKI, Masato MAEDA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 591-603
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 30, 2022
    Advance online publication: June 17, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between basketball shooting distance and release parameters (i.e., release position, speed, and angle), and how the latter are adjusted according to increases or decreases in the shot distance. The subjects were eight male university basketball players who took 50 shots from each of seven shooting positions (3.75 m, 4.75 m, 5.75 m, 6.25 m, 6.75 m, 7.25 m, and 7.75 m from the center of the hoop). Two high-speed video cameras (120 fps) were used to capture the shooting motion and trajectory of the ball after release. The video images were analyzed using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation method, and the variables of the arrival position and the release parameters of the ball were calculated. It was revealed that when the shot distance was large, the average value of the arrival position of the shot ball may not lie within the hoop. This suggested that when considering how to adjust the release parameters with increasing shot distance, it was necessary to distinguish whether or not the average value of the arrival position of the shot ball would lie inside the hoop. As to the relationship between shot distance and the release parameters, it was considered that the subjects adjusted these parameters by decreasing the release angle while increasing the release speed when the shot was attempted 5.75 or 6.25 m from the hoop. Furthermore, when the distance to the hoop was ≤6.25 m, the actual release angle was slightly larger than the optimal release angle, and both of these parameters decreased as the shot distance increased. Therefore, it was thought that the optimal release angle could be used as a guide for adjusting the release angle. As the shot distance increased, the distance from the shooting position to the release position tended to increase, but the release height did not change significantly. However, for all subjects, the change in the release distance or release height with increasing shot distance differed between shooting positions of ≤6.25 m and ≥6.75 m from the center of the hoop. This suggests that the way force is applied to the ball in the shooting motion between these positions may change as the shot distance increases.
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  • Daisuke MURAYAMA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 605-618
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: August 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: June 21, 2022
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     Artistic gymnastics involves a huge number of elements. In order to plan training for the future, it is necessary to have a grasp of trends and developments for each apparatus and identify techniques that are worth passing on (Sano and Watanabe, 2019b). The evolution of elements and techniques for uneven bars (UB) up to around 1970 was described in Coaching of Artistic Gymnastics (Kaneko, 1974). However, the historical transition of elements and techniques that has occurred since then has not yet been thoroughly analyzed.
     In this study, through an analysis of trends in the historical development of elements and techniques related to UB, we clarified the factors associated with the development of UB elements with the aim of developing a systematic theory of gymnastics elements.
     We collected and organized historical data on UB, including rules, video materials, and research materials. The study was carried out using the method of historical research on sports technology adopted by Kishino (1972). From the results of the survey, we were able to grasp the timing and tendencies of rapid technological developments in UB, and searched for items that had had the most significant impact.
     The results of this research are summarized as follows.
     1. The period from the introduction of the UB apparatus up to 1974 was characterized by the development of original morphology, and the concept of “flow-oriented exercise” was adopted and developed.
     2. From 1975 to 1992, the adoption of the giant backward swing led to an increase in the distance between the bars, which greatly changed the developmental direction of the technique. In this era, “pursuit of the terminal phase” evolved.
     3. From 1993 to 2021, “high difficulty orientation” evolved. Also, during this period, revision of the rules promoted developments designed to make existing structures more complex, and the occurrence of original morphology decreased.
     As of 2021, it can be said that changes in the elements of UB have tended to complicate the structure of the technique. In the future, it may be effective to formulate rules that place high value on new techniques that are considered to be creative forms.
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Practical investigations
  • Effectiveness of environmentally friendly messaging
    Hiroshi MATSUMOTO
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 319-327
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 18, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 23, 2022
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     Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. A recent Japanese national health and nutrition survey has demonstrated that only 12.9% of young women exercise regularly despite these health benefits. Moreover, sufficient evidence exists that a nudge can encourage stair climbing. However, studies examining the effects of nudge message content are lacking. To address this research gap, this study investigated the effectiveness of the nudge message content for young women for encouraging the use of stairs instead of escalators at a train station.
     We employed a quasi-experimental design and conducted a count of individuals who used stairs/escalators over a span of 36 days. A 3-week baseline period was followed by two 3-week periods with motivational message interventions. The first 3-week intervention used a nudge that emphasized a healthy lifestyle, whereas that for the second 3-week intervention highlighted an environmentally friendly lifestyle. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare the use of stairs versus escalators at the baseline and between the two 3-week interventions with nudge messages for healthy and environmentally friendly lifestyles.
     The authors noted 34,696 observations of individuals using stairs or adjacent escalators within the study period. The results indicate that the use of stairs significantly increased among young women only during the intervention period with environmentally friendly nudge messages, which were considered to be more effective among young women than the healthy lifestyle nudge messages. Accordingly, we suggest that attention toward a content that can motivate the target population should be increased in formulating nudge messages aimed at health promotion.
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  • Comparison with typically developing children
    Akihiro SAKAMOTO, Akane OTOMO, Maiko MAEKAWA, Azusa YOSHIMATSU
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 361-377
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2022
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     The purpose of this study was to implement integrated long-term camp therapy and examine its effect on perceived self-positiveness, sense of acceptance and social skills in children with developmental disorders, through a comparison with typically developing children. The study participants were 20 children with developmental disorders (16 males and 4 females; average age: 13.43 ± 0.84 years) and 66 typically developing children (43 males and 23 females; average age: 12.0 ± 6.73 years). These subjects completed assessments for the Sense of Self-Positiveness Scale (SSPS), Sense of Acceptance Scale (SAS), and Social Skills Scale in Camping (SSS-C) prior to camping (Pre), immediately after camping (Post1), and one month after camping (Post2). It was found that, the SSPS indicated an interaction and higher values for “self-confidence” and “self-expression and interpersonal positivity ” in the developmental disorders group in Post2. The SAS indicated a main effect of group and time period. In addition, the SSS-C indicated main effect of group and time period on “behavior to develop relations” and “behavior to participate in relations”. Furthermore, the scores for the SSPS, SAS, and SSS-C in the typical development group were higher than those in the developmental disorder group. Finally, when structural equation modeling was used to consider interrelationships among sense of self-positiveness, sense of acceptance, and social skills in children with developmental disorders, it was found that their sense of awareness of others was increased by a sense of acceptance with social skills as an intermediary, whereas self-consciousness was improved by an increase in the sense of acceptance.
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  • Yuta YAMANAKA, Rumi MURASE, Miwako HOMMA, Hideki TAKAGI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 619-644
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: August 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: June 21, 2022
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     The purpose of this study was to verify the educational effectiveness and outcomes of university swimming classes for enhancing self-preservation skills in the water, which had been formulated by Yamanaka et al. (2022), and to re-structure the teaching theory for these skills based on their design. Educational effectiveness was evaluated in terms of changes in students' water movement skills and a questionnaire survey. For analysis of changes in water movement skills, we used the results of 10-minute drifting, 12-minute swimming, and Stallman's skill check. Also, to analyze the educational outcomes of the class, we qualitatively analyzed the assignments in the class report to the students. The results of the skill measurements showed that the percentage of students who successfully achieved the 10-minute drifting and 12-minute swimming tasks was significantly higher in the last class session than in the first. In addition, for all measurements, the percentage of students who answered “I can do” in the last class session was significantly higher than in the first. Analysis of the class reports confirmed that the students were able to achieve the set objectives and tasks of the class. Consequently, the teaching theory for self-preservation ability in the water was re-structured by: (1) giving students the opportunity to experience coping with water disaster based on water movement skills and knowledge of underwater safety, (2) letting students experience various aquatic activities, (3) allowing students to recognize their own self-preservation skills in the water, and (4) enhancing the ability of students to cope with water disaster situations by allowing them to think of their own responses.
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Materials
  • Kosuke HIRUMA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 79-90
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 10, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 14, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the arm swing movements of upper grade elementary school children during sprinting from the viewpoint of gender and differences in sprinting ability.
     Fifty-three children were asked to run 50 m and filmed from the side with a video camera. The subjects were then classified into 3 groups on the basis of their 50-meter sprinting time: an Excellent group (Group E), a Poor group (Group P), and an Average group (Group A). Kinematic data for the arm swing movements were then calculated and compared according to gender and differences in sprinting ability. The main results were as follows.
     1) A gender difference in upper arm movement was found in the minimum segment angle of the upper arm: girls swung their arms more forward than boys, even when groups with similar sprinting times were compared.
     2) When differences in upper arm movement were examined for each gender, it was found that the boys in group E showed significantly larger differences than those in groups A and P, and that group E swung their arms back and forth more widely than the other groups. With regard to upper arm angular velocity, which is an index of “arm swing speed”, group E group showed a significantly larger value than group P, and group E showed a faster backward arm swing. On the other hand, no such tendency was observed in girls, and no significant difference was found among the 3 groups with different sprinting speeds.
     3) In terms of gender differences in elbow joint movement, there were no significant differences in either angle or angular velocity between boys and girls.
     4) When the difference in elbow joint movement was examined for each gender, the maximum angle for girls in group E was significantly greater than that for girls in group A, but there were no significant differences in other areas.
     The above results indicate that the concepts of “swinging the arms back and forth significantly” and “swinging the arms fast”, which have been considered central for teaching during sprinting, are applicable to boys but not necessarily to girls. Furthermore, the concept of “maintaining elbow flexion” was not supported for both sexes.
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  • Subaru SHINTANI, Hirokazu YAMAZAKI, Masaaki SUGITA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 103-112
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 14, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     Trampoline gymnastics have been included in the Olympic Games since the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Since then, many more countries have started programs for development of trampoline gymnastics. Although trampoline gymnastics include individual, synchronized and team events, only individual performance is included in the Olympics. Trampoline gymnastics include an initial routine and a second routine. The present study focused only on the second routine, and was designed to clarify how addition of the T score in 2011 has affected current trampoline gymnastics. The results of the World championships and All Japan championships held between 2011 and 2019 were compared, and the total scores and other scores were investigated. The transition evident in scores from 2011 to 2019 suggested that Japanese male athletes have lagged behind the world’s top players, whereas Japanese women athletes have been rapidly closing in on the top flight. Examination of the relationship between the total score and other scores for the top 30 male athletes in the 2019 World championships showed a strong positive correlation with the E score (r = 0.70). For women, on the other hand, there was a strong positive correlation with the T score (r = 0.71). These results may provide a useful basis for devising a strategy aimed at improvement of performance.
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  • Takeshi OGAWA, Munehiro TETSUGUCHI, Satoru KOWA, Masayuki YOSHIDA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 157-167
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 02, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 12, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     This study aimed to investigate the effects of school closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on students' perceptions of physical activity and exercise. An online, form-based questionnaire was administered to students of elementary, junior high and high schools, and universities in Japan. The total number of respondents was 3,502. The questionnaire was designed to determine variations in anxiety about studying, physical fitness, and daily life, and the relative amounts of physical activity and exercise before and after school closures. The results demonstrated that anxiety about studying, physical fitness, and daily life following school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic differed according to gender and the type of school (P <0.05). The amounts of physical activity and exercise were both reduced. Additionally, the frequency and intensity of exercise decreased significantly among students who participated in sports clubs from junior high school through university (P <0.05). However, excercise frequency increased among university students not belonging to sports clubs (P <0.05). Weekly exercise frequency decreased among elementary through high school students (P <0.05) but increased among university students (P <0.05). Our results suggest that school closures have reduced the frequency and degree of physical activity and exercise among children and adolescents, as well as increasing their anxiety. We conclude that measures against the COVID-19 pandemic must focus on not only preventing the spread of infection but also health risks from a social viewpoint.
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  • Shohei YAMAKOSHI, Hironobu TSUCHIYA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 169-181
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 02, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 14, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to examine whether personal growth initiative could mediate the relationship between rumination/reflection and subjective well-being among Japanese university athletes.
     One hundred and seventy Japanese university athletes (111 males, 59 females, mean age = 19.33 years) participated. The Japanese version of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (Takano and Tanno, 2008) was used to measure rumination and reflection. Also, the Japanese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale Ⅱ (Tokuyoshi and Iwasaki, 2014) was used to measure personal growth initiative. Moreover, subjective well-being was assessed using the Subjective Well-Being Scale (Ito et al., 2003).
     Path analysis showed that rumination had no significant effect on PGI but had a direct negative effect on subjective well-being. Therefore, rumination had a negative effect on subjective well-being, but this effect was not mediated by PGI. On the other hand, reflection had a positive effect on PGI, and PGI also had a positive effect on subjective well-being. In addition, mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of reflection on subjective well-being via PGI. These results suggest that PGI may be a critical factor that can help to enhance subjective well-being among athletes with a low degree of reflection.
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  • A qualitative interview study
    Hidehiro KASANO
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 235-253
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 13, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the institutional characteristics of soccer in Germany from the viewpoint of the German Football Association (DFB), utilizing as a theoretical framework the subjective theory of sport organization, based on the results of interviews with the DFB and a German soccer coach. Using this approach, we hoped to provide a multifaceted perspective on the institutional characteristics of organizing enthusiasts.
     The present analysis was able to clarify the institutional characteristics of soccer in Germany from the perspective of the sport organization. It was suggested that the institutional characteristics were supported by the “Sport Ideology” of the DFB and that these formed the social character of the enthusiasts. Then, by systematizing its social character, a cyclical structure in which it became the “Sport Ideology” of the DFB was demonstrated.
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  • Focusing on differences in competition event and gender
    Tatsuaki IKEDA, Yoichi KATSUMATA, Yasuhiro SUZUKI
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 303-317
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 12, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 03, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to compare the age at which elite athletes started competition, and the age range for advanced athletic activities. The study included 914 athletes and candidate athletes (451 men aged 15-51 years and 463 women aged 14-55 years) who participated in the 2014 Incheon Asian Games. In addition, the study investigated the ages of 1,971 athletes and candidate athletes (992 men, 979 women) at previous Olympic Games (Athens 2004, Beijing 2008, London 2012, Rio 2016).
     The main results of the study were as follows. 1) There were significant differences among sports event categories in the age at which both male and female athletes started competition: scoring events (boys 6.8 ± 3.0 years, girls 7.3 ± 2.4 years), racket events (boys 7.2 ± 2.1 years, girls 6.4 ± 1.9 years), fighting events (boys 9.2 ± 4.9 years, girls 9.0 ± 4.0 years), ball games (boys 9.2 ± 4.9 years, girls 10.2 ± 4.1 years), record events (boys 12.3 ± 5.2 years, girls 13.5 ± 6.9 years), target events (boys 12.6 ± 6.4 years, girls 14.5 ± 7.7 years) and water events (boys 13.4 ± 3.9 years, girls 12.1 ± 3.9 years) (P <0.05). 2) There were significant differences among competition events in the period from the start of competition until participation in international competition and reaching a winning level in national competition: record events (6.7 ± 5.0 years) vs. ball games (9.6 ± 4.4 years) and scoring events (9.9 ± 4.2 years) for girls, target events (4.9 ± 2.2 years) and record events (6.7 ± 4.6 years old) showed lower values than scoring events (7.5 ± 3.9 years), fighting events (7.7 ± 4.1 years), racket events (8.2 ± 3.5 years) and ball games (8.7 ± 4.0 years) (P <0.05). 3) For both men and women, there were significant differences between competition systems in the age of participation in the Olympics: water events 28.4 ± 4.6 years, target events 30.3 ± 7.1 years and scoring events 31.1 ± 11.6 years for girls, scoring events 20.7 ± 3.3 years, racket events 23.6 ± 4.4 years, record events 24.2 ± 4.5 years. Compared with age, ball games 25.4 ± 4.4 years, fighting events 25.8 ± 3.6 years, water events 26.5 ± 4.8 years and target events 28.1 ± 6.3 years (P <0.05). The findings suggested that the age at which athletes started competition, the period from the start of competition until reaching top level, and the timing of participation in the Olympic Games may be affected by differences in competition type and gender.
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  • for male college soccer players
    Ryosuke INADA, Toshiyuki OHYA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 397-405
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 28, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 27, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of changes in scoring methods on game activities and technical requirements for small-sided games (SSGs). Twelve male college soccer players participated in the study (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; age: 20 ± 0 years; height: 172.6 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 68.7 ± 6.3 kg; athletic career duration: 13 ± 2 years). All participants played three-a-side games using 4 different scoring methods. The scoring method was set to 1 goal without shot zones (1G), 1 goal with shot zones (1Gzone), 2 goals without shot zones (2G) and 2 goals with shot zones (2Gzone). In games with shot zone conditions, only goals resulting from shots within the zone were allowed. SSGs comprised 6 min of game play, and the field dimensions were 27 m × 18 m. The scoring method significantly affected total distance in the movement category (1G, 606.2 ± 45.7 m vs. 2Gzone, 671.4 ± 41.6 m; P <0.05) and high-intensity running in the locomotor movement category (1G, 48.6 ± 21.5 m vs. 1Gzone, 91.2 ± 38.7 m; 2Gzone, 90.6 ± 33.5 m; P <0.05). In addition, the scoring method significantly affected the average number of shots per player in the technical actions category (1G, 3.9 ± 1.1 n; 2Gzone, 2.5 ± 1.4 n; P <0.05). These results demonstrate that organization of the shot zone resulted in an increase of highintensity running during SSGs.
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  • Comparisons among Japanese and non-Japanese elite swimmers
    Keita AKASHI, Yuji MATSUDA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 407-418
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 28, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinematic factors determining differences in performance in the start phase of sprint swimming (from the start signal to the first 15 m). For this purpose, we compared the start phases of 19 male and 18 female elite swimmers showing high performance over short-distance events in Japan.
     The results showed that, for both men and women, the time from 5 m to 15 m had a greater effect on the 15 m time than the time from the start signal to 5 m. In other words, swimming velocity during the underwater kick and stroke transition was found to be important. In addition, the average horizontal velocity at 4 m - 5 m was related to the 15 m time for both men and women, but the horizontal take-off velocity was related to the 15 m time only for men. On the other hand, the horizontal take-off velocity of Japanese swimmers tended to be lower than that of foreign swimmers documented in previous studies. These results suggest that the factors requiring improvement in the starting phase differ according to gender and competition level.
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Case studies
  • Yasuyuki NISHIHARA, Wataru UCHIYAMA
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 113-124
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 29, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The aim of this case study was to reproduce the images recorded by a fixed video camera and those recorded by a 360-degree omnidirectional camera to investigate characteristics and differences in how expert coaches and novice coaches perceive such images, based on differences in the coaches' verbal responses during basketball games. From the findings, 3 points were clarified. 1) It appeared that novice coaches were unable to observe phenomena in VR images but were able to do so from fixed camera images. In contrast, proficient coaches were considered highly likely to observe such phenomena from both types of images. 2) From fixed camera images, both novice and proficient coaches tended to observe phenomena objectively, in terms of being able to describe the situation and offer guidance and criticism. 3) From VR images, proficient coaches tended to offer praise or instructions on the basis of specific individual characteristics of player or team movements.
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  • A case study of interviews based on the replay stimulation method using class videos
    Taiga HAGIWARA, Seiichiro KIHARA, Hiroshi CHOSOKABE
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 537-556
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 12, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     In inclusive physical education classes, teachers focus on building relationships between children in the regular classroom and children with disabilities. However, the type of knowledge teachers have or apply to their classes has remained unclear. Also, in relation to the process of creating teaching materials, the type of knowledge applied when planning classes, or the degree to which the content or procedures need to be modified or adjusted for each physical activity depending on teachers' aims, has not been adequately investigated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the knowledge of teachers needed for conducting inclusive physical education classes.
     For the interview, teachers conducting inclusive physical education classes were asked to share their thoughts about lesson plans and actual instruction, while watching a video of their own lesson practice. To examine their knowledge, SCAT, a qualitative data analysis method, was applied to the contents of the interviews. Then, the themes and constructs extracted by SCAT were classified into the 7 knowledge domains of Shulman's knowledge base.
     As a result, the following points were clarified:
     (1) In this case study, “pedagogical context knowledge” (PCK), which is knowledge specific to teachers, was applied when the teacher gave guidance for building relationships between children in regular classes and children with disabilities. This knowledge allowed teachers to play a bridging role with the aim of making the 2 parties mutually responsive in order to build consensus.
     (2) When teachers created teaching materials for the inclusive physical education classes, they employed a two-stage reconstruction approach, using different knowledge at each stage. In the first stage, teachers developed materials based on sports and other sources using “knowledge of content” and “knowledge of general teaching methods”. In the second stage, the teachers modified the physical education materials to take into account the participation of children with learning disabilities in the inclusive physical education classes using PCK such as changing the equipment to make ball handling easier and changing the rules to facilitate competition.
     These findings indicate that teachers apply their own knowledge of inclusive physical education to actual lessons.
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  • Examination of a 100-mile expedition by an Arctic adventurer
    Jun SEINO
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 557-575
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 12, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 26, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     The purpose of this research was to explore the characteristics required of a leader for adventure journeys. The study comprised 2 parts. In Part 1, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the Arctic adventurer Yasunaga Ogita to clarify the concepts he regarded as essential for an expedition leader. This yielded an understanding of the characteristics of adventure journeys, i.e. repeatedly taking active steps, while accepting uncertainty and freedom. On that basis, it was shown to be vital to identify and manage risks through objective assessment, and to make choices based on active observation. In Part 2, a participant-observation method was used, focusing on Yasunaga Ogita, as well as 8 6th-grade elementary school students and 7 staff members who participated in a 100-mile expedition. As practical knowledge, Part 2 clarified the actions required for achieving an adventure journey based on the expert knowledge of Mr. Ogita revealed in Part 1. This clarified the characteristics of risk management and acceptance of the freedom of children, and demonstrated that “instruction”, “education”, “acceptance”, “response”, and “delegation of decision-making to the team” should be properly applied based on active observation. It was concluded that an effective expedition leader needs to repeatedly engage in selfregulation, manage the contradictory elements of risk and freedom, and adapt to change. To develop such characteristics, it is crucial to build up experience while actively going into the field and engaging in group action.
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Current Trend
  • Jun MIZUSHIMA, Kenichi HIROSE
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 297-302
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 11, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     Communities of practice have been applied in coach development programs around the world. The purpose of the current study was to explore the concept of community of practice, the theoretical background, the literature on community of practice for sport coaches, and the value creation process in community of practice. The findings of this study should offer some insight into how we can implement community of practice for coach learning and development.
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Secondary publication
  • Hayato YAMAMOTO, Masanori TAKEMURA, Misato TACHIBANA, Junzo TSUJITA, T ...
    2022 Volume 67 Pages 1-7
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 27, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
     Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of match results (win-loss, score differential) on the physical performance of rugby union teams to improve training and conditioning and provide ideas for use on the playing field.
     Methods: Data for one team were obtained from 45 official matches over the 2013, 2014, and 2015 seasons. Global positioning system units with built-in accelerometers were worn by the players; the per-match total distances, accelerations, and impact forces were calculated for the forwards and the backs. Match results consisted of 2 elements: the win-loss result and the score differential.
     Results: Data showed that each parameter had a high value in closely fought matches when a team lost or when the point differential was small. In addition, physical performance was impacted differently from one position to another. Forwards engaged in significantly less high-acceleration and high-impact activity in wins but significantly higher activity in close matches ( p <0.05). Backs engaged in significantly higher impacts (i.e., harder/more tackles) in close matches (p <0.05).
     Conclusions: Based on these data, some suggestions for new approaches that can be adopted by strength and conditioning coaches to optimize training-related performance and prevent sports injuries have been included.
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