2021 Volume 99 Issue 1 Pages 49-65
Precipitation consists of many types of hydrometeors, such as raindrops, ice crystals, graupel, and hail. Due to their impacts, graupel and hail (GH) have received particular attention in the literature. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) dual-frequency radar (DPR) has proved to be a very reliable system for global precipitation retrievals. This paper aims to develop a GH identification algorithm for GPM DPR. This algorithm is constructed using a precipitation type index (PTI) defined for DPR. The PTI is effective in separating hydrometeor types and is calculated using measurements of reflectivity, dual-frequency ratio, and storm top height data. The output of the algorithm is a Boolean product representing the existence of graupel or hail along with the vertical profile for each Ku- and Ka-band matched footprint. Cross validation is performed with the Weather Service Radar (WSR-88D) network over continental United States as well as during the Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) experiment. Evaluation of the GH identification algorithm is performed on a global basis, which illustrates promising comparisons with the global lightning and hail precipitation maps generated using radar and radiometer.