Article ID: 2019-062
The charge structure evolution of a mesoscale convective system with anomalous or inverted charge structure observed in the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study, a field project on the Colorado–Kansas border in summer 2000, is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with electrification and discharge processes. Two non-inductive electrification schemes are used based on liquid water content (LWC) and graupel rime accretion rate (RAR). The simulation with the LWC-based electrification scheme cannot reproduce the inverted charge structure with a positive charge region sandwiched by two negative charge layers, while the RAR-based electrification scheme produces the evolution process of a normal–inverted–normal charge structure in the convective region, which is consistent with the observations. In low RAR (< 2 g m−2 s−1) region, graupel is mainly negatively charged when it bounces off ice crystals, while the ice crystals take up positive charge. However, in the zone where the inverted charge structure forms, a strong updraft (> 16 m s−1), high LWC (> 2 g m−3) and high RAR (> 4.5 g m−2 s−1) region appears above the height of the −20°C layer, so that a positive graupel charging region is generated above −20°C layer of the convective region, resulting in a negative dipole charge structure with negative charged ice crystals above the positive charged graupel. The negative dipole is superposed on the positive dipole (positive above negative) charge structure at the lower position to form an inverted tripole charge structure.