気象集誌. 第2輯
Online ISSN : 2186-9057
Print ISSN : 0026-1165
ISSN-L : 0026-1165
The Added Value of Large-Eddy and Storm-Eesolving Models for Simulating Clouds and Precipitation
STEVENS BjornACQUISTAPACE ClaudiaHANSEN AkioHEINZE RiekeKLINGER CarolinKLOCKE DanielRYBKA HaraldSCHUBOTZ WiebkeWINDMILLER JuliaADAMIDIS PanagiotisARKA IoannaBARLAKAS VasileiosBIERCAMP JoachimBRUECK MatthiasBRUNE SebastianBUEHLER Stefan A.BURKHARDT UlrikeCIONI GuidoCOSTA-SURÓS MontserratCREWELL SusanneCRÜGER TrauteDENEKE HartwigFRIEDERICHS PetraHENKEN Cintia CarbajalHOHENEGGER CathyJACOB MarekJAKUB FabianKALTHOFF NorbertKÖHLER MartinLAAR Thirza W. vanLI PuxiLÖHNERT UlrichMACKE AndreasMADENACH NilsMAYER BernhardNAM ChristineNAUMANN Ann KristinPETERS KarstenPOLL StefanQUAAS JohannesRÖBER NiklasROCHETIN NicolasSCHECK LeonhardSCHEMANN VeraSCHNITT SabrinaSEIFERT AxelSENF FabianSHAPKALIJEVSKI MetodijaSIMMER ClemensSINGH ShwetaSOURDEVAL OdranSPICKERMANN DelaSTRANDGREN JohanTESSIOT OctaveVERCAUTEREN NikkiVIAL JessicaVOIGT AikoZÄNGL Günter
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論文ID: 2020-021

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 More than one hundred days were simulated over very large domains with fine (0.156 km to 2.5 km) grid spacing for realistic conditions to test the hypothesis that storm (kilometer) and large-eddy (hectometer) resolving simulations would provide an improved representation of clouds and precipitation in atmospheric simulations. At scales that resolve convective storms (storm-resolving for short) scales, the vertical velocity variance becomes resolved and a better physical basis is achieved for representing clouds and precipitation. Similar to past studies we find an improved representation of precipitation at kilometer scales, as compared to models with parameterised convection. The main precipitation features (location, diurnal cycle and spatial propagation) are well captured already at kilometer scales, and refining resolution to hectometer scales does not substantially change the simulations in these respects. It does, however, lead to a reduction in the precipitation on the time-scales considered – most notably over the Tropical ocean. Changes in the distribution of precipitation, with less frequent extremes are also found in simulations incorporating hecto-meter scales. Hectometer scales appear more important for the representation of clouds, and make it possible to capture many important aspects of the cloud field, from the vertical distribution of cloud cover, to the distribution of cloud sizes, to the diel (daily) cycle. Qualitative improvements, particularly in the ability to differentiate cumulus from stratiform clouds, are seen when reducing the grid spacing from kilometer to hectometer scales. At the hectometer scale new challenges arise, but the similarity of observed and simulated scales, and the more direct connection between the circulation and the unconstrained degrees of freedom make these challenges less daunting. This quality, combined with an already improved simulation as compared to more parameterised models, underpins our conviction that the use and further development of storm-resolving models offers exciting opportunities for advancing understanding of climate and climate change.

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© The Author(s) 2020. This is an open access article published by the Meteorological Society of Japan under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.
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