2019 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 8-18
The present study was conducted to assess the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on synovial explants from rats with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In our study, synovial membranes were excised from the knees of healthy adult Wistar female rats under sterile conditions. We first investigated the synoviums incubated in a control medium or in a medium containing 10 μg/mL LPS, each for 24, 48, and 72 h (LPS-experiment). The changes in inflammatory response from the synoviums were observed at different culture times. Then, we assessed the synoviums exposed to different ATRA concentrations for 24 h (ATRA-experiment). The controls (blank, model group, and solvent groups) were set up. The effects of ATRA on synovitis were evaluated by measuring the production of cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of cartilage damage related proteases. In the LPS-experiment, LPS contributed to the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in synovial explants. Importantly, LPS did not cause a significant pathological damage. The inflammatory response observed in this model was significant for 24 h, suggesting that LPS-induced synovial explants were successfully established. In the ATRA-experiment, ATRA suppressed the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, NO, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), MMP-3, and MMP-9. Taken together, ATRA exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced synovial immune inflammatory response stimulated by the regulation of inflammatory mediators and cartilage damage related proteases in synovial explants, demonstrating a potential protective effect on synovitis and joint destruction in the patients with RA.