2018 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 293-303
This large-scale study cross-sectionally examined the periodontal status and prevalence of “red complex” bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia) in Japanese adults. A total of 977 participants were enrolled in the study. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and bone crest level (BCL) were recorded, and the presence of red complex bacteria in the saliva was examined using polymerase chain reaction. The mean BCL value and the percentage of sites with a PD ≥4 mm or the presence of BOP were significantly higher in older participants. The detection rates of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia were 46.3%, 76.4%, and 61.1%, respectively. The P. gingivalis detection rate significantly increased with age, while those of T. denticola and T. forsythia were comparably high for all age groups. A close correlation between P. gingivalis and the percentage of sites with PD ≥4 mm was indicated by nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. Current smokers exhibited a more advanced disease condition and a significantly higher P. gingivalis detection rate than non-smokers. In conclusion, periodontal condition worsens with age, and P. gingivalis appears to be the red complex bacterium most closely associated with periodontitis.