Biodentine (BD) is a bioactive material with many indications in endodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to compile and review the outcomes of in vitro and in vivo studies of BD in terms of antimicrobial effectiveness. An electronic search was carried out in PubMed, from January 2009-April 2021 using the keywords: (Biodentine or dentine substitute or “Ca3SiO5” or tricalcium silicate cement or bioceramic cement) and (antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial effect or antimicrobial effectiveness or antibacterial activity or antibacterial effect or antibacterial effectiveness or antibiofilm activity or antibiofilm effectiveness). Two independent reviewers evaluated the studies for eligibility. All studies that did not include BD or its antimicrobial properties, as well as abstracts not written in English, were excluded. This review identified the need to develop standardized methods to evaluate antimicrobial activity in vitro. Most of the studies were against planktonic bacteria and gave conflicting results. Studies ex vivo and in vivo against biofilm are required to elucidate the antimicrobial activity of BD.
Purpose: To analyze the biological effects of four base materials used for elevation of proximal subgingival margins on gingival epithelial cells.
Methods: Twenty-eight specimens for each of the four base materials (total 112 specimens) were used: resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), glass hybrid (HV-GIC), flowable bulk fill resin composite (Bulk Flow) and bioactive ionic resin (Activa). Proximal enamel and root dentin were used as controls. Gingival epithelial cell viability was calculated after direct incubation on all four types of material for either 24 h or 72 h using both the methyl tetrazolium and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc test and independent sample t-test (P < 0.05).
Results: Cell viability values in both assays showed significant differences among the study groups. Bulk Flow showed the highest values, followed in order by Activa and the control groups. Both HV-GIC and RMGI had the lowest values. Cell viability in all of the study groups was higher after incubation for 72 h than after 24 h.
Conclusion: In terms of biocompatibility with epithelial tissues, bulk fill resin composite appears to be most suitable, followed by bioactive composite, for subgingival placement than glass ionomer-based materials, especially that containing 2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nonthermal argon plasma (NP) surface treatment on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia restorations with different microstructures.
Methods: Twenty restorations were prepared from each of two tetragonal and two cubic zirconia materials (80 restorations in total). The restorations were then divided into two subgroups (n = 10) for each material according to the surface treatment applied: air abrasion or NP. The surface topography of the treated groups was examined using a scanning electron microscope. All restorations were fixed to metal dies with resin cement, subjected to thermal cycling, and then underwent fracture resistance testing with a universal testing device. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis of the data (α = 0.05).
Results: The type of surface treatment and the type of zirconia material were shown to significantly affect the fracture resistance of the restorations. The air-abraded groups showed significantly higher fracture resistance (N) than the NP groups (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that air abrasion surface treatment has a more favorable effect on the fracture resistance of tetragonal and cubic zirconia restorations than NP surface treatment.
Purpose: To evaluate the immediate function of anterior maxillary implants.
Methods: One hundred nine patients (42 males and 67 females; average age 55.2 years; range 38-81 years) were followed for 10 years. One hundred eighty-eight implants using nasal and full-length palatine cortical anchorage were inserted in the anterior section of the maxilla together with 188 tilted implants placed posteriorly. Outcome measures were implant success and survival, prosthesis survival, bone loss, and the incidence of biological and mechanical complications. Cumulative success and survival were computed through Kaplan-Meyer product limit estimator (at patient level) and life tables (implant level).
Results: Four patients lost one implant each, giving a 10-year cumulative survival rate of 95.8% and 97.7% using the patient and the implant as the unit of analysis, respectively. The prosthesis survival rate was 98.2%, and the average marginal bone loss was 1.79 mm (1.06 mm). The cumulative success rate was 89.1% and 92.5% using the patient and the implant as the unit of analysis, respectively.
Conclusion: Full-arch fixed prosthetic rehabilitations supported by immediately functional implants inserted in the anterior maxilla with bicortical anchorage together with posterior-tilted implants are viable in the long term.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to clarify the porcelain firing temperature conditions that give strongest bonding strength of porcelain to zirconia to manufacture all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with excellent long-term stability.
Methods: Opaque porcelain samples (8.0 × 3.0 × 1.2 mm) were placed in the center of zirconia plates (25.0 × 3.0 × 0.5 mm) and fired at temperatures of 950°C, 1,050°C, 1,100°C, and 1,150°C. Schwickerath crack initiation tests, elemental analyses, and morphological changes of the samples were compared.
Results: There was no difference in the bonding strength among all the groups of porcelain fired at different temperatures. Elemental analysis of Si and O2 at the interface between the zirconia and porcelain were observed in the 950°C, 1,050°C, and 1,100°C groups. No silicon was found in the 1,150°C group by elemental analysis, and the zirconia plate where the porcelain sample was placed had irregular shape changes.
Conclusion: It is suggested that silicon is also involved in chemical bonds due to firing at high temperatures.
Purpose: This study investigated whether additive manufactured (AM) surfaces inhibit accumulation of bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy dental implants. Bacterial biofilms are thought to cause peri-implant disease, which develops in mucosa surrounding titanium (Ti) and Ti alloy dental implants and can lead to bone loss and implant failure.
Methods: Accumulation of a Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) biofilm on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was compared in relation to fabrication method, ie, AM using electron beam melting (EBM) or laser beam melting (LBM). Conventional lost-wax casting was used as positive control, and Teflon was used as negative control. Biofilm accumulation on the alloys and negative control (each n = 10) was conducted at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. After 4 h, the number of metabolically active S. mutans bacteria adhering to the alloy was determined with a bioluminescence assay.
Results: The quantitative roughness values of the specimens, before exposure to bacteria, ranked EBM > LBM > cast > Teflon.
Conclusion: The amount of biofilm accumulation on the investigated AM metals and cast metal controls did not significantly differ.
Purpose: This in vitro study analyzed the accuracy of a computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) guided implant surgery system by comparing linear, angular, and coronal deviations between the planned and final implant placement.
Methods: By using a fully guided surgery workflow, 32 dental implants were placed in 16 partially edentulous models. After virtual design of the restorations, radiological and CAD files were matched and implant positions were planned by using dedicated implant planning software (Galileo Implant version 1.9.2.). Templates were designed (Cerec Omnicam) and milled (Cerec MC XL) by using chairside workflow. Galileo Implant version 1.9.2. was used to evaluate accuracy.
Results: Mean horizontal and angular-coronal total deviation values were 0.2 mm (SD = 0.126) and 1.1º (SD = 0.834) respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance showed significant differences in horizontal and angular-coronal total deviation in the 32 implants (P = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis with one-factor interaction showed no statistical difference in implant position or implant type (P = 0.139) between eight maxilla models and eight jaw models.
Conclusion: Horizontal and angular-coronal deviations of implants placed with chairside digital workflow were within the recommended safety margin for fully guided surgery.
Purpose: The study aimed to examine the nuclear localization of propiece interleukin (IL)-1α (ppIL-1α) and extracellular release rates of ppIL-1α, pIL-1α, and mIL-1α.
Methods: The subcellular localization of IL-1α molecules was observed in HeLa cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged IL-1α. Extracellular release efficiency was examined using N-terminal HiBiT-tagged IL-1α. The nuclear localization status of ppIL-1α was examined by incubating ppIL-1α transfectants with 0.1% Triton X-100 solution or with complete medium on ice.
Results: The results indicated the diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear localization for m and p and ppIL-1, respectively. All IL-1α forms were released from the cells even in the steady state, and the release efficiency was 25%, 13%, and 8% for mIL-1α, pIL-1α, and ppIL-1α, respectively. Under oxidative stress condition, GFP-mIL-1α was totally diminished, but weak staining of GFP-pIL-1α and GFP-ppIL-1α was detected; nuclear localization of GFP-ppIL-1α was completely abolished by 0.1% Triton X-100 treatment, however, it remained in the nucleus after culture in complete medium on ice.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ppIL-1α was localized in the nucleus and released extracellularly even in the steady state. Moreover, its cellular localization is not firm, and it is presumed to be floating in the nucleoplasm.
Purpose: Unless the phenotype of the transgenic mice is distinguishable, genotyping in each mouse is required prior to experiments. This study aimed to establish a new identification method for the phenotype in Thy1-GCaMP6s transgenic mice to reduce the cost and time.
Methods: Tail biopsies (2 mm) were performed under general anesthesia with isoflurane in 3 to 4-week-old mice. Then, the resected tail was cut again with a sharp razor, and the cross-sections were observed with two-photon microscopy (excitation wavelength = 940 nm). The emitted light was split into green and red light by a dichroic mirror (570 nm) with bandpass filters (495-540 nm for green, 575-645 nm for red).
Results: Two types of expressed fluorescent pattern were found in the tail tissue: the presence of green fluorescent structures (type 1) and the absence of the structures (type 2). Cortical imaging confirmed that type 1 expressed the cortical GCaMP6s, while type 2 did not.
Conclusion: These results suggest that observation of the cross-sectioned tail in Thy1-GCaMP6s mice enabled to identify the phenotype within approximately 10 min/mouse, which reduces the cost and time for genotyping.
Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of geraniol (GE) and thymoquinone (TQ) on Candida biofilms on denture acrylic and any accompanying changes in acrylic surface roughness or color.
Methods: The susceptibility of Candida species to GE and TQ was determined using the broth microdilution method and time-kill assay. A minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) assay was performed using 7-day Candida biofilms grown on denture acrylic.
Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GE and TQ for Candida spp. was 256 and 32 µg/mL, respectively. The Candida strain complete kill rates for GE and TQ at 5-fold MIC were determined after 1 h of incubation. At 5-fold MIC, GE and TQ inhibited the preformed biofilm activity (MBEC80) of all Candida strains on denture acrylic by more than 80% after treatment for 3 h. At sub-MIC levels, GE and TQ prevented the development of C. albicans and C. tropicalis hyphae. SEM images demonstrated that GE and TQ damaged the fungal cell membrane and induced cell lysis. On the other hand, GE and TQ at 10-fold MIC did not alter the surface roughness or color of the denture acrylic.
Conclusion: GE and TQ are interesting natural substances that could be developed as promising disinfectants for removable dentures.
Purpose: This study compared the bond strengths of four adhesive systems and four different resin composite block materials: Gradia Block (GR), Shofu Block HC (SH), Estelite Block (ES), and KZR-CAD HR2 (KZ).
Methods: A primer (PZ-AB) containing a silane (γ-MPTS) with 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) was applied to ground surfaces of the resin composite block specimens, and the specimens were then bonded to stainless-steel rods using two methyl methacrylate-tributylborane (MMA-TBB)-based luting agents (SB and MT), designated as the PZ-AB/SB and PZ-AB/MT adhesive systems, respectively. The SB resin contained 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), whereas the MT resin did not. The SB resin without primer (No primer/SB) and a dual-curing composite-type adhesive system (UPA/RelyX) were used as controls. The 24-h tensile bond strengths were determined and analyzed using the Tukey-Kramer HSD test (α = 0.05, n = 8).
Results: The highest bond strengths were obtained for the GR/PZ-AB/MT, GR/PZ-AB/SB, KZ/PZ-AB/MT, ES/PZ-AB/SB, and KZ/No primer/SB groups, whereas the KZ/UPA/RelyX, ES/UPA/RelyX, SH/UPA/RelyX, and SH/No primer/SB groups exhibited the lowest bond strengths.
Conclusion: For each resin composite block material primed with γ-MPTS and MDP, the MMA-TBB-based luting agents, irrespective of the presence of 4-META, provided higher bond strengths than the dual-curing composite-type adhesive system.
Although digital technology is commonly used in various forms of dental treatment, its application to fabrication of removable dentures is still associated with limitations or challenges, such as the recording of occlusal vertical dimensions and determination of the occlusal plane. Here, a simple and inexpensive technique for fabrication of removable complete dentures, partly aided by digital technology, is proposed.
The purpose of the present study is to gain an understanding of the current state of pre-clinical education for procedures of impression making. In 2019, a survey questionnaire was emailed to the senior professors and department heads of 29 Japanese dental colleges. The response rate was 100%. This cross-sectional survey clarified the impression making for removable complete denture fabrication in Japanese dental schools’ education.
The purpose of this study is to assess students’ perception of digital waxing software for dental anatomy education. Dental students were introduced to digital waxing during a dental anatomy course, and were requested to finish a voluntary survey. Students strongly agreed (18.2%) or agreed (48.0%) with the statement “digital waxing contributed to my learning of dental anatomy”, and strongly agreed (29.9%) and agreed (55.8%) with the statement “The digital waxing software helped develop my wax-up skills”. The digital waxing software may be effective for dental anatomy education, but students do not believe digital waxing can be a replacement for conventional wax-up practice.