Journal of Oral Science
Online ISSN : 1880-4926
Print ISSN : 1343-4934
ISSN-L : 1343-4934
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Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
Original article
  • Abdul Khabeer, Syed Z. Ahmed, Mukarram Zubair, Muhammad A. Faridi, Mam ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 125-128
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 24, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: To evaluate the degree of conversion (DoC) of self-adhesive resin luting cements when irradiated through different fiber post lengths.

    Methods: A total of 60 teeth were sectioned to achieve lengths of 4 mm, 7 mm, and 10 mm, while 60 fiber posts were trimmed to give 3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm lengths. Post space was created to accommodate the fiber post and 1 mm of luting cement apically. Two self-adhesive resin luting cements (Multilink Speed and RelyX U200) were used. A total of four cycles of 20 s irradiation was done with an attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reading between each cycle.

    Results: The mean ± standard deviation DoC achieved with a light-emitting diode and quartz tungsten halogen for Multilink Speed was 67.4 ± 2.7% and 72.4 ± 4.0%, respectively, while for RelyX U200, the corresponding values were 56.5 ± 2.7% and 62.0 ± 3.8%, respectively. For Multilink Speed, there was no significant difference between the control and the 3 mm group, while for RelyX U200, no significant difference was found between the 6 mm and 9 mm groups. All the other groups showed significant differences.

    Conclusion: The DoC reduced as the post length increased.

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  • Piotr Koryczan, Jan Zapała, Michał Gontarz, Grażyna Wyszyńska-Pawelec
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 129-132
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 28, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for enophthalmos after pediatric orbital blowout fracture. Associations of fracture type, fracture site, time from injury to treatment, and type of surgical procedure with treatment outcomes were assessed.

    Methods: The medical records of 200 children and adolescents (38 girls and 162 boys) with orbital fractures treated in the authors’ department from 1975 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The main causes of injury were accidental blows to the orbit and sports injuries. This study included only patients with fracture of the floor and/or medial wall of the orbit, which is referred to in the English literature as pure, or internal, blowout fracture. Patients with fracture of the orbital rim, lateral wall, or roof were excluded. Surgical treatment was performed for 178 patients; the other 22 children were treated conservatively.

    Results: In the surgically treated group, treatment outcomes did not differ in relation to the severity of post-traumatic enophthalmos. The setting of the eyeball improved in 83% of patients.

    Conclusion: The severity of post-traumatic enophthalmos was not associated with surgical outcome in children.

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  • Yoshiyuki Amari, Toshiki Takamizawa, Ryo Kawamoto, Yasuhiro Namura, Ry ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 133-138
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC) pastes on the surface texture of different subject materials.

    Methods: Two one-step PMTC pastes, Clinpro Cleaning Paste for PMTC (CP) and PRG Pro-Care Gel (PG), and multiple-step PMTC pastes, Merssage Regular (MR), Merssagge Fine (MF), and Merssage Plus (MP), were used. For comparison, PMTC was performed using distilled water without paste (DW). The subjected materials used were bovine enamel (ENA) and dentin (DEN), a resin composite (FSU), and lithium disilicate (IEC). The prepared specimens were polished using a #2000-grit silicon carbide paper. PMTC was performed using a brush at 1,000 rpm for 15 s.

    Results: The surface roughness (Ra) values of the specimens before and after PMTC were measured by laser scanning microscopy. The Knoop hardness number (KHN) of the subjected material was obtained. The types of PMTC pastes and subject materials had a significant influence on the Ra values and KHN. For the majority of subject materials, the descending order of Ra values after PMTC was MR > MF > CP > PG > MP > DW. The descending order of KHN of the materials was IEC > ENA > FSU > DEN.

    Conclusion: Although one-step PMTC pastes appeared to be effective, it is important to consider the subject material during PMTC.

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  • Philippe François, Anis Remadi, Stéphane Le Goff, Sarah Abdel-Gawad, J ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 139-144
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study investigated the flexural properties, shear bond strength (SBS) and interface to dentin of three recently developed self-adhesive bulk-fill materials.

    Methods: Bars of Surefil One (SO), Cention N (CN), Activa BioActive Restorative (AB) and EQUIA Forte HT Fil (EQUIA) were tested for flexural strength and flexural modulus in self-curing and light-curing modes. In addition, SBS to dentin was tested in specimens without pretreatment and after application of universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal). EQUIA was used as the control material.

    Results: The flexural properties were significantly better in light-curing mode for all materials except CN. CN had the highest SBS values after universal adhesive application (33.8 MPa), and SO had the highest SBS without pretreatment (20.9 MPa).

    Conclusion: The mechanical and adhesive properties of these new materials varied widely.

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  • Mako Sano, Hiroshi Shiga
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 145-147
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study aimed to clarify whether occlusal force and masticatory performance reduced in elderly adults and whether these parameters were affected by age.

    Methods: Seventy-eight elderly adults (elderly group) and 76 young adults (control group) with natural dentition were asked to maximally clench for 3 s, and occlusal force was calculated. The amount of glucose extraction after chewing a gummy jelly was measured as the parameter for masticatory performance. Occlusal force and masticatory performance were compared between the elderly and control groups. The correlation between age and occlusal force and between age and masticatory performance was also investigated.

    Results: Occlusal force was significantly smaller in the elderly group (P < 0.05). Masticatory performance was lower in the elderly group, but this difference was not statistically significant. No significant correlation was observed between age and occlusal force in the control group, but a negative correlation was found in the elderly group (P < 0.05). No significant correlation was found between age and masticatory performance in either group.

    Conclusion: Occlusal force was affected by age and reduced significantly, whereas masticatory performance was not affected by age and was maintained in elderly adults.

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  • Shiva Jafarnia, Alireza Valanezhad, Sima Shahabi, Shigeaki Abe, Ikuya ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 148-151
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 28, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of a short fiber-reinforced resin composite: everX-Posterior and compare it with two bulk-fill composites, namely, Filtek Bulk-fill and Beautifil-Bulk, which are intended for large posterior restorations.

    Methods: Investigated properties were flexural strength, flexural modulus, surface roughness, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure. Scanning electron microscopy images of each specimen after the flexural test were used for cross-sectional comparison. Results were analyzed using ANOVA following Tukey post-hoc test.

    Results: Flexural strength of everX-Posterior was comparable with two other resin composites, showing higher flexural modulus. EverX-Posterior showed the highest surface roughness after polishing and the lowest volumetric shrinkage (2.29%) among all composites used in this study. Data also showed that the everX-Posterior depth of cure was 4.24 mm, which was the highest among the three groups.

    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that everX-Posterior as a short fiber-reinforced composite showed improvements and satisfactory performance in mechanical and physical properties, which make it a reliable base material candidate for large posterior restorations.

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  • Alex Solderer, Benjamin Pippenger, Yann Gager, Kai Fischer, Patrick R. ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 152-156
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: To determine the impact of experimentally preformed peri-implant crater-shaped bone defects on the evolution of in situ microbiota and development of bone defects compared to those induced over time by ligature placement only.

    Methods: Implants were installed in the mandibles of eight dogs. Standardized bone defects were preformed in four test animals but not in the other four control animals, prior to implant (3.3 mm × 8 mm) installation. After 2 months of healing, peri-implantitis was induced with silk ligatures in both groups for 2 months. Microbial samples were obtained from implants and teeth for analysis at three time points (qPCR), and the average depths of the bone defects were measured.

    Results: At the baseline, the total marker load of periodontal-pathogenic bacteria (TML) for teeth accounted for 5.2% (0-17.4%). After implant healing, TMLs for implants and teeth were comparable (7.1% [0.3-17.4%]). The TML of both groups was 3.5%, 2 months after ligature placement. Bone defects had a mean depth of 1.84 mm at preformed defects and 1.64 mm at control sites (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion: Preformed defects in the test group showed comparable results to the control group in terms of TML, the incidence of periodontal-pathogenic bacteria, and bone defect depth.

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  • Akiko Takatsuki-Hira, Masahiro Kaketani, Kohei Shimizu, Takahito Tamur ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 157-162
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine novel techniques using prototype endodontic obturators to obturate a resin-based sealer.

    Methods: Powder-liquid ratios of MetaSEAL Soft were changed to obtain suitable root canal sealing, and the physical properties for various powder-liquid ratios were analyzed according to ISO-6876. Tensile bond strength was also examined. Prototype endodontic obturators with a combination of thread numbers and pitch angles were analyzed for sealing ability after MetaSEAL Soft was obturated in simulated root canals.

    Results: Powder-liquid ratios of 1.0:1, 1.1:1, 1.2:1, and 1.3:1 showed suitable physical properties; however, flow for 1.4:1 was below a standard value. Tensile bond strength increased gradually when the powder-liquid ratio changed from 1.0:1 to 1.3:1, and 1.3:1 and 1.4:1 showed the highest and lowest bond strengths, respectively. Sealing ability increased when pitch angles of the obturators were 5°, 8°, and 11°; 11° showed the best results. Similarly, sealing ability increased when the thread number was 12, 17, and 22 pitches; 22 showed the best results.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that the prototype endodontic obturator can be useful for obturating MetaSEAL Soft, and a powder-liquid ratio of 1.3:1 MetaSEAL Soft may be the most suitable for achieving excellent sealing.

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  • María-José Conejero, Amelia Almenar, Leopoldo Forner, José Luis Sanz, ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 163-166
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: To compare the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a procedure to complement root canal treatment (RCT), for both primary treatment and retreatment.

    Methods: This was a retrospective study based on analysis of clinical records. A total of 214 teeth that had undergone RCT on either a primary or retreatment basis, with or without complementary PDT, were evaluated. For 118 teeth that met the previously established inclusion criteria, the time until healing was evaluated. Complementarily, the need for application of calcium hydroxide (CaHy) between visits and the number of visits necessary for completing the treatment were assessed. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and χ2 tests with a significance level of P < 0.05.

    Results: Periapical radiolucency resolution was achieved at 15 ± 9.33 months in the RCT + PDT group and 20.35 ± 22.1 months in the RCT group (P = 0.07). For primary treatment, CaHy was necessary in 72.4% of the RCT cases and 16.4% of the RCT + PDT cases (P < 0.01). For retreatment cases, CaHy was used in 82.7% of the RCT cases and 17% of the RCT + PDT cases (P < 0.01). In the RCT group, more than two visits were necessary for primary treatment in 18.6% of the cases, compared with 13.10% in the RCT + PDT group (P = 0.31), whereas for retreatment, more than two visits were necessary for 64.9% and 49.1% of cases, respectively (P = 0.05).

    Conclusion: In comparison with RCT alone, teeth receiving RCT + PDT showed less variation in the time needed for periapical lesion healing, fewer cases required CaHy, and fewer cases required more than two visits to complete the treatment.

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  • Hisashi Suguro, Anna Nishihara, Takahito Tamura, Takeshi Nakamura, Yur ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 167-169
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study evaluated the precision of electronic working length by microcomputed tomography using two electronic apex locators (EALs).

    Methods: Twenty single-rooted permanent teeth without caries or restorations were selected as the subject teeth. The positions of the minor apical constriction (AC) and major apical foramen (AF) were measured by electronic root canal length, and microcomputed tomography was performed with the file inserted and fixed in the root canal. All teeth were measured individually and independently by two operators. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to statistically test the AC and AF values using two EALs; P < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant.

    Results: This was 65.0% within 1.5 mm in the case of two EALs on AC. This was more than 90.0% within 1.0 mm in the case of two EALs on AF. Comparison of the differences between the respective AC and AF of the measurements obtained using the two EALs revealed no significant difference.

    Conclusion: The two EALs are devices that can greatly improve the accuracy of WL control.

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  • Tomoyuki Matsui, Suzuro Hitomi, Yoshinori Hayashi, Ikuko Shibuta, Jo O ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 170-173
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: Infantile tissue injury induces sensory deficits in adulthood. Infantile facial incision (IFI) was reported to cause an enhancement of incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in adulthood due to acceleration of the trigeminal ganglion neuronal excitability. However, the effects of IFI on activation of microglia in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and its involvement in facial pain sensitivity is not well known.

    Methods: A facial skin incision was made in the left whisker pad in infant (IFI) and/or adult rats (AFI). Mechanical head withdrawal threshold and microglial activation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus were analyzed.

    Results: Mechanical pain hypersensitivity induced by AFI was significantly exacerbated and prolonged by IFI. The number of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the trigeminal spinal nucleus following AFI was increased by IFI, suggesting that IFI facilitates microglial hyperactivation following AFI. Intraperitoneal administration of minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, suppressed the facial incision-induced microglial hyperactivation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus and the exacerbation of the facial mechanical pain hypersensitivity induced by IFI.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that facial trauma in infants causes hyperactivation of microglia in the trigeminal spinal nucleus following AFI, leading to the prolongation of the facial mechanical pain hypersensitivity.

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  • Tadashi Masaoka, Keiji Shinozuka, Kenshin Ohara, Hiromasa Tsuda, Kenic ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 174-178
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: The present study aimed to identify dysregulated exosomal miRNAs associated with diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    Methods: Microarray analysis was used to compare expression profiles of exosomal miRNAs in the OSCC-derived cell lines HSC-2, HSC-3, Ca9-22, and HO-1-N1 with those in human normal keratinocytes (HNOKs). The identified OSCC-related miRNAs and their potential target genes were analyzed with bioinformatic analyses, and the data were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to clarify functional networks and gene ontologies of the identified exosomal miRNAs secreted by OSCC cells.

    Results: Comparison with HNOKs detected 8 upregulated and 12 downregulated miRNAs in OSCC-secreted exosomes. The potential target mRNAs of these dysregulated miRNAs were suggested by IPA, and 6 significant genetic networks were indicated by genetic network analysis. Furthermore, 4 crucial upstream miRNAs—miR-125b-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-200b-3p, and miR-23a-3p—were identified. miR-125b-5p was a central node in the most significant network. Gene ontology analysis showed significant enrichment of genes with cancer-related functions, such as molecular mechanisms of cancer, cell cycle, and regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Conclusion: These results provide a comprehensive view of the functions of dysregulated exosomal miRNAs in OSCC, thus illuminating OSCC tumorigenesis and development.

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  • Naoto Ohbayashi, Peerapong Wamasing, Kenichi Tonami, Tohru Kurabayashi
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 179-183
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and predictors of hypercementosis in mandibular third molars using cone beam computed tomography.

    Methods: Using a retrospective approach, 1,160 cone beam computed tomography image sets were analyzed. Two oral radiologists independently evaluated the image sets based on four severity grades: 0, no hypercementosis around the root; 1, hypercementosis surrounding less than half of the root surface; 2, hypercementosis surrounding more than half of the root surface; and 3, hypercementosis surrounding the entire root surface. Hypercementosis was identified as a dark or light layer. Statistical analyses of relationships between hypercementosis incidence and possible predictors (e.g. age, sex, impaction, and occlusion) were performed using chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test; logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis.

    Results: The severity of hypercementosis increased with age, and the incidences were as follows: ≤19 years, 0%; 20-24 years, 14.1%; 25-29 years, 57.7%; 30-39 years, 83.0%; 40-49 years, 92.7%; 50-59 years, 93.4%; and ≥60 years, 96.8%.

    Conclusion: The observed incidences of hypercementosis were relatively higher than in previous studies, and the incidence was significantly lower for occluded teeth than for non-occluded teeth.

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  • Sho Tanaka, Taku Toriumi, Tatsuaki Ito, Yuta Okuwa, Taku Futenma, Keit ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 184-190
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the response of dental pulp associated with donor or host cells in the pulp chamber and root canal after extra-oral transplantation.

    Methods: Wild type or green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic first molars from 3-week, 6-week, and 12-week mice were transplanted into the subcutaneous layer of GFP mice or wild type mice. The teeth were histologically and immunohistochemically examined at 5 weeks after transplantation.

    Results: Blood vessels present in the original coronal pulp had anastomosed with those from the recipient tissue that had invaded the root canal. Two distinct eosin-stained extracellular matrices were observed in the pulp chamber and root canal. Acellular matrix composed of nestin-positive, odontoblast-like cells invaded from the outside and was seen in the root canal of 3-week teeth. Cellular matrix comprising alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive fibroblast-like cells appeared in the original coronal pulp. In the root canal of the 6-week and 12-week teeth, cellular extracellular matrix consisting of ALP-positive fibroblast-like cells had invaded the recipient tissue.

    Conclusion: Dental pulp from immature teeth might be able to regenerate dentin-like tissue. This model could be useful in the development of an optimized vitalization treatment.

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  • Hani M. Nassar, Anderson T. Hara
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 191-194
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slurry abrasive levels and acidic challenges on the development of non-carious cervical lesions.

    Methods: Ninety-six extracted upper premolars were affixed in pairs to acrylic blocks and had their root surfaces covered by acrylic resin except for 2 mm from the cemento-enamel junction. The specimens were distributed into six groups (n = 8 pairs) based on two experimental factors: (1) slurry abrasivity level [low/medium/high] and (2) citric acid challenge [yes/no]. Specimens were brushed for 5,000, 15,000, 35,000, and 65,000 strokes. Volume loss (VL) was determined based on optical profilometry scans of specimens impressions at the baseline and at subsequent brushing levels. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni pairwise comparison (α = 0.05).

    Results: Higher VL values were associated with high-abrasivity slurries relative to low- and medium-abrasivity slurries (P < 0.001). Increasing the slurry abrasivity level increased the VL regardless of the acidic challenge, which did not have a significant effect (P = 0.184). After 65,000 strokes, significant VL was recorded in all groups relative to preceding brushing levels (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Higher values of time-dependent surface loss were associated with increased dentifrice slurry abrasivity, regardless of the citric acid challenge.

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Short Communication
  • Yui Fujiwara, Takahisa Murofushi, Ryosuke Koshi, Yoshikazu Mikami, Hir ...
    Type: Short Communication
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 195-197
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: December 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Treating the gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cell with butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacteria within mature dental plaque, induces necrotic cellular death. In this report, it was examined whether SCFA-mediated cellular death is accompanied by a release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the release of DAMPs was evaluated. Human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells were treated with butyrate or propionate. The amounts of dead cells were then measured using SYTOX-green dye. Released DAMPs were detected by western blot. The role of ROS scavengers, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine, on DAMP-release was evaluated. Dose and time-dependent induction of Ca9-22 cell death was observed during butyrate and propionate treatments. This was accompanied by the release of DAMPs. Ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine reduced cellular death and inhibited DAMP-release induced by exposure to butyrate or propionate. These data collectively suggest that SCFA-induced death of gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells and accompanying release of DAMPs are dependent on ROS.

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  • Sarinya Yingcharoenthana, Ruchanee Ampornaramveth, Keskanya Subbalekha ...
    Type: Short Communication
    2021 Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 198-200
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 31, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A split-mouth single-blind randomized-controlled clinical trial study was designed to investigate the effect of local and systemic vitamin C administration on extraction wound healing. Thirty patients who underwent bilateral premolar extraction were randomly divided into three group pairs; group 1: control and systemic administration (Con/CSA), group 2: control and a combination of local and systemic administration (Con/CLSA), and group 3: systemic and a combination of local and systemic administration (CSA/CLSA). The vitamin C (600 mg) was taken by swallowing (systemic administration) or slow oral dissolution (combined local and systemic administration). The socket size and radiographic density were evaluated immediately after extraction, and 7 days and 21 days later. The results demonstrated that the percentage radiographic density of new bone formation in the socket did not differ significantly within each group. However, in the CSA and CLSA group there was an improvement of soft tissue healing based in terms of socket depth reduction at 21 days after extraction compared with the control (P < 0.05).

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