2018 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 336-343
This study investigated the effect of the vertical position of the canine on changes in the frictional/orthodontic (F/O) force ratio of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires during the initial levelling phase of orthodontic treatment. Frictional and orthodontic forces were measured by using low-friction brackets and Ni-Ti archwires with three different cross-sectional sizes and force types. To simulate canine malocclusion (first premolar extraction case), the upper right canine was displaced gingivally by 1 to 3 mm and the inter-bracket distance between the upper right lateral incisor and second premolar was set at 15 mm or 20 mm. A three-point bending test was performed to measure the orthodontic force of each Ni-Ti archwire. Frictional forces were measured with a universal testing machine and dental arch models by pulling parallel to the end of the archwire at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. F/O force ratio was calculated and analysed statistically. At a displacement of 3 mm, few archwires had F/O force ratios of less than 1.0, at which orthodontic force overcame frictional force, thus ensuring extrusion of the canine. For effective tooth movement, orthodontists should use Ni-Ti archwires with an F/O force ratio of less than 1.0.