Journal of Oral Science
Online ISSN : 1880-4926
Print ISSN : 1343-4934
ISSN-L : 1343-4934
Original article
Root and canal morphology of the permanent anterior dentition in a Black South African population using cone-beam computed tomography and two classification systems
Glynn D. BuchananMohamed Y. GamieldienInger Fabris-RotelliAlbert van SchoorAndre Uys
Author information

2022 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 218-223


Purpose: This study investigated the root and canal morphology of the permanent anterior dentition in a Black South African population.

Methods: In total 2,343 permanent anterior teeth were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography images and described according to the Vertucci and Ahmed et al. classifications. Demographic information, root number and internal canal morphology were recorded. Age and sex associations were made using Fisher’s exact test (P < 0.05).

Results: All anterior teeth were single-rooted (100%). The most frequent configuration in maxillary anteriors was a single canal (Vertucci Type I/1MXA1). In mandibular anteriors, single canal configurations (Type I/1MDA1) predominated, however 36.6% of mandibular central and 33.9% of lateral incisors displayed two canals. Older subjects (>40 years) demonstrated single canals more than younger subjects (P = 0.0004). Females displayed variations more compared to males (P = 0.002). The two classifications were found to be comparable for evaluation of permanent anterior teeth. Complex configurations were better described using the newer system.

Conclusion: The permanent anterior teeth of this population exhibited exclusively single roots and diverse internal characteristics. Clinicians should be aware of anatomical variations, particularly in mandibular incisors, as these may result in adverse endodontic outcomes if not taken into consideration by the treating practitioner.

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© 2022 by Nihon University School of Dentistry
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